A list of famous 17th century pirates, including many buccaneers, with lots of pictures and images. The most famous pirate from this time is probably Sir Henry Morgan, but when it comes to maritime piracy, especially during the 1600's, there are plenty of other real pirates. Who was the Most Famous Pirate in the 17th Century? Pirate history is as old as boats themselves. Buccaneers throughout the 17th century were the scourge of merchants, as well as that of the French, English, and especially Spanish Crowns. Many of them can be found on this list of the most famous 17th century pirates throughout this time within the history of piracy.