In March of 2003, the US, along with allies from the UK, Australia and Poland, invaded Iraq in the hopes of toppling the Baathist regime of Saddam Hussein. The government and people of France, however, expressed strong opposition to the plan at the time in the United Nations, thus earning them the ire of many Americans, and even inspiring a boycott of imported French goods and French businesses.
On March 11th, 8 days before Operation Iraqi Freedom commenced, two Republican congressmen - Robert Ney of Ohio and Walter Jones Jr. or North Carolina - declared that all references to "France" on the menus of restaurants and snack bars in the House of Representatives should be removed. French fries being such a staple food, however, complicated matters, so it was decided that they would be renamed "freedom fries." (French toast was also nicknamed "Freedom Toast," but that never really took off as a concept." Ney and Jones issues a statement explaining the decision: "This action today is a small but symbolic effort to show the strong displeasure many on Capitol Hill have with our so-called ally, France." Take that, you cheese-eating surrender monkeys!
Though there was some historical precedent (during WWI, sauerkraut was renamed "Liberty Cabbage" in the US), the move was largely mocked by the press, comedians and the public at large. It was suggested that American Cheese be renamed "idiot cheese," that turkey be renamed "Independence Bird" to disassociate itself with that country and even that all other words including the term "french" be changed - giving rise to phrases like "freedom kissing."
Former Led Zeppelin lead singer Robert Plant also released a song called "Freedom Fries," criticizing the Bush administration, on his "Mighty ReArranger" LP in 2005. Check it out above.
The term "weapon of mass destruction" - meaning a weapon capable of killing off a large number of humans, and decimating a wide area of natural or man-made environment - has been used in academic and political circles since the 1930s. The name itself, however, only really entered the public consciousness of Americans after 9/11, particularly during the lead-up to the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
President Bush and numerous members of his executive team explained the need to eliminate the regime of Saddam Hussein by discussing his stockpile of WMDs. The unsuccessful search for WMDs in Iraq occupied much of the news coverage leading up to the war. (The Paul Greengrass film "Green Zone" with Matt Damon dramatizes the search for WMDs in the early days of the Iraq War.) Much of the discussion about media coverage of Iraq, and its impact on how Americans viewed the war, focused on the prevalence of the WMD argument.
Additionally, the inability to find WMDs once US soldiers were on the ground in the country was a turning point in the American public's growing dissatisfaction with the war effort. Once it became clear that the weapons were not as prevalent and the threat of Iraqi WMDs not as pressing as it had initially seemed, parodies began to appear, including this Internet Explorer 404 page mock-up that for a time was the #1 Google result for the phrase "WMD." As well, Air America radio - a progressive talk network - used the catchphrase "Weapons of Mass Deception" to describe their political opponents, and a controversial 2003 EasyJet ad campaign referred to a woman's breasts as "weapons of mass distraction."
Perhaps the most memorable parody was this interview between satirist Sacha Baron Cohen (portraying the character of simple-minded talk show host "Ali G") and American politician Pat Buchanan, about the dangers of Iraqi BLTs.
We're At Orange Alert
In March of 2002, the newly-formed Department of Homeland Security introduced an "advisory system" designed to alert Americans to the immediate risk of terrorist attacks. The system involved a color-coded chart, with five "terror alert levels," ranging from Green (Low) to Red (Severe). 4th on the list was Orange Alert (in other words, a High alert), which became something of a metonym for the entire chart.
The color-coded terror alert system faced a lot of criticism on multiple fronts. People felt the "colors" were vague and didn't come tied to any specific suggestions or courses of action. Here's Butch Bradley expanding on the subject:
Nevertheless, the phrase stuck as sort of an alternative (and, in most cases, milder) variation on the idea of a "red alert," and has become shorthand for describing the post-9/11 moment in America and the ways governments can sometimes, even unintentionally, terrify their citizens. The system was eventually abandoned in 2011, leading Conan O'Brien to suggest replacing it with "The Nicolas Cage Terror Alert":
The phrase "enhanced interrogation techniques" and its sister phrase, "alternative set of procedures," have been used by the US government since the Bush years to mean brutal interrogation methods that don't necessarily equal torture. Bush stated emphatically that "the United States does not torture," but this leaves the door open - at least, grammatically - to a host of "enhanced techniques" that approach torture.
Debates about the use of the techniques and their effectiveness have raged in America essentially since these tactics were first publicly explored in 2008. Much of the discussion goes back to memos written by John Yoo - from the White House Office of Legal Counsel - in the aftermath of 9/11. Yoo's so-called "torture memos" laid out how the president could legally authorize the use of enhanced interrogation techniques without technically violating the Geneva Conventions against the use of torture. Specifically, it argued that "waterboarding" - pouring water over the face of an immobilized captive to simulate drowning - was not torture.
Ever since, waterboarding has become something of an American obsession. A number of writers and personalities have publicly undergone the procedure, attempting to determine whether or not it amounts to torture. The list includes conservative radio personality Erich "Mancow" Muller as well as political pundit and noted author Christopher Hitchens. And, of course, they both made videos. (Mancow's is above; Hitchens below. Both are sort of troubling to watch, so be warned.)
Smoke Them Out of Their Holes
"We will find those who did it. We will smoke them out of their holes. We'll get them running, and we'll bring them to justice." -- George W. Bush, Sept. 15, 2011.
By 2003, when he was waging war in Iraq, George W. Bush's reliance on swagger - what some pundits would call his "John Wayne" style - started to cost him political points. (He memorably said of Iraqi militants attacking US forces "Bring 'em on" in July of 2003 and got a lot of heat for it.)
But in the immediate aftermath of 9/11, Americans rejoiced in hearing Bush's strong words for the nation's new enemies. During his memorable "bullhorn speech" at the still-smoldering remains of Ground Zero, Bush promised that the people who knocked down those buildings "will hear from all of us soon" to riotous applause and cheers.
During a September 15th radio address, Bush promised to hunt down terrorists as part of a long, unrelenting war, and first used the "smoke them out of their holes" phrasing. Though Americans would grow weary of those conflicts in later years, right at that moment, it seemed just exactly what they wanted to hear.
Once some time had passed and the US had failed to capture Osama bin Laden - the terrorist mastermind most closely associated with the 9/11 attacks - the "smoke them out of their holes" concept, which Bush had repeated often after his original 9/15 usage - started sounding more like bluster. Eventually, it became a key example of Bush's reliance on tough talk instead of effective policies. The Michael Moore documentary "Fahrenheit 911," for example, included a sequence of clips of Bush repeating his intention to "smoke 'em out" and mixed in clips from old, hokey movies in which fictional characters utilized the same phrasing.
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