<![CDATA[Ranker: Recent Politics & History Lists]]> http://www.ranker.com/list-of//politics--and--history http://www.ranker.com/img/skin2/logo.gif Most Viewed Lists on Ranker http://www.ranker.com/list-of//politics--and--history <![CDATA[F*ck Yeah Facts About Viking Berserkers, History's Badass Norse Warrior-Shamans]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/viking-berserker-facts/philgibbons

The Vikings were known throughout Europe as fierce warriors, and no discussion of Viking warrior culture is complete without an examination of the history of berserkers, a particularly wild, crazy, violent sect of Norsemen. Berserkers entered a state of animalistic frenzy before battle. This bizarre cult of crazies was eventually outlawed, even in the warrior culture of the Scandinavian Middle Ages, but not before making their mark on history.   

If you're interested in Norse berserker history, look no further than this list. Here you will find crazy berserker facts, and learn about the Viking berserker drugs imbibed before these beastly warriors enter the fray of war. Hold onto your battle ax, because things are about to get kinda berserk. 

F*ck Yeah Facts About Viking Berserkers, History's Badass Norse Warrior-Shamans, history, politics & history, military, other,

They Lived Like Predators in the Woods, Braving Harsh Scandinavian Winters Alone

Like all traditional members of shamanic secret societies, berserkers acquired their power through ritualistic practice. These practices included spending periods in extreme isolation, fasting, exposure to extreme heat and cold, and engaging in group weapon dances prior to battle.  In the wilderness, berserkers lived like their totem animal, adopting its mannerisms and habits, sustaining themselves by hunting and raiding settlements. So, yeah, they just ran off into the woods and lived like f*cking bears and wolves because they were goddamn Viking berserkers. 

Their Psychotic Raping and Pillaging May Have Given Vikings a Bad Rap

As you may or may not know, a lot of behaviors commonly ascribed to Vikings has little historical connection to ancient Norse society. They weren't running around raping everyone (they didn't do a lot of breeding), there was a relative sense of gender equality and fairness in social treatment, and their modus operandi wasn't destroying everything in their path. 

So where do these ideas come from? It's possible they come, at least in part, from the berserkers. They were the villains of many Norse sagas, and are generally described as "a predatory group of brawlers and killers who disrupted the peace of the Viking community repeatedly." 

The classic image of the raping and pillaging Viking party appears in descriptions of berserker behavior. In Gesta Danorum, turn of the 13th century Danish historian Saxo Grammaticus wrote:

The young warriors would harry and pillage the neighborhood, and frequently spilt great quantities of blood. They considered it manly and proper to devastate homes, cut down cattle, rifle everything and take away vast hauls of booty, burn to the ground houses they had sacked, and butcher men and women indiscriminately.

And more specifically, about their psychotic sexual exploits:

So outrageous and unrestrained were their ways that they ravished other men's wives and daughters; they seemed to have outlawed chastity and driven it to the brothel. Nor did they stop at married women but also debauched the beds of virgins. No man's bridal-chamber was safe; scarcely any place in the land was free from the imprints of their lust 

The Marched Into Battle Basically F*cking Naked, Except for an Animal Pelt

Berserkers were a special group of elite Viking warriors who went into battle without traditional armor. Instead, they wore animal pelts, typically from bears or wolves. The word "berserker" derives from the Old Norse "serkr," meaning "coat" or "shirt," and "ber," the Norse word for "bear." 

Also, they were butt-ass naked under the pelt. At least according to legend. 

They Were So F*cking Crazy the Vikings Outlawed Them

The first mention of Berserkers was in a Norse poem about the first king of Norway, Harald Fairhair, who lived from 850 until 932. The poem mentions a warrior gang in Harald's army fighting while clad only in animal skins. However, by 1015, Norway had officially outlawed berserkers. The legal codes of ancient Iceland also specifically mentioned berserkers, branding them outlaws. By the 12th century, berserkers in any organized force or military presence had virtually disappeared.

Their Ultimate Goal Was to Transform into a Wolf or Bear, Because Why the F*ck Not?

Berserkers did more than intimidate through their lack of armor and battle dress; they also transformed themselves mentally. Not like, "Oh, I need a more positive state of mind, I'm going to read some Pema Chödrön." Nah, son. Berserkers assumed the mental identity of the predators they sought to emulate.  

Literally, the goal of the berserker in battle was to assume the identity and characteristics of a bear or a wolf. And not just imitating, mind you. Berserkers were method actors. In fact, becoming a wolf or bear was the ultimate goal of all the drugs, drinking, and ritual in which the berserkers partook. Living in the woods, emulating these animals served as preparation for the transformation, as did entering a frenzied state. 

One of the final rituals on this path entailed drinking the blood of a bear or a wolf. 

Icelandic Viking saga Egils Saga Skallagrímsonar describes a berserker quite literally turning into a bear:

Men saw that a great bear went before King Hrolf's men, keeping always near the king. He slew more men with his forepaws than any five of the king's champions. Blades and weapons glanced off him, and he brought down both men and horses in King Hjorvard's forces, and everything which came in his path he crushed to death with his teeth, so that panic and terror swept through King Hjorvard's army...

They Were Used As Shock Troops Because, Well, They Shocked the Sh*t Out of People

Scandinavian kings such as Harald and Halfdan used berserkers as shock troops, or the advance attacking group in a battle. This served two purposes: it cleared the way for the army to follow, and struck fear into the hearts of enemies. Berserkers were also closely associated with the cult of Odin, the god of royalty (among about 100 other things), noted for his association with leadership. Thus, sending berserkers into battle as the avant-garde may have curried favor with Odin. They were also occasionally used as royal bodyguards.

One Noted Berserker Ate His Own F*cking Shield Before Killing Six Enemy Champions

Berserkers were especially feared in battle, because they were perceived as invulnerable to fire, swords, and other iron weapons.  An Icelandic poet from the 13th century wrote of one berserker:

... a demoniacal frenzy suddenly took him; he furiously bit and devoured the edges of his shield; he kept gulping down fiery coals; he snatched live embers in his mouth and let them pass down into his entrails; he rushed through the perils of crackling fires; and at last, when he had raved through every sort of madness, he turned his sword with raging hand against the hearts of six of his champions. It is doubtful whether this madness came from thirst for battle or natural ferocity. 

So to review, this guy entered a state of frenzied rage, ate his own shield, swallowed fire, ran through flames, and, having exhausted all other methods of proving his insanity, killed six champion fighters. M

Refusal to retreat from fire and Iron is a common theme in berserker mythology. They feared no weapons. Actually, you might even say they were into weapons. Because they ate them. 

They Got F*cked Up on Mushrooms and Booze Before Battle, and May Have Been Schizophrenic

Though there's no definitive proof as to whether or not berserkers got blitzed before charging into battle, it's hypothesized the used both magic mushrooms and obscene quantities of alcohol.

Writing in the American Journal of Psychiatry, Howard Fabing explains berserkers may have taken Amanita muscaria. a psychedelic mushroom containing bufotenine. In trials, bufotenine has been shown to cause hallucinations and psychophysiological effects consistent with those described in Norse sagas. 

It's also possible they drank butt tons of alcohol. Both shrooms and booze consumption fit contemporary knowledge of Viking rituals, though other reasons for the berserker rage-trance have been suggested, including self-induced hysteria, epilepsy, mental illness, and even genetics. 

"What do you want to be when you grow up, little Morten?"

"Well, my daddy flies into an uncontrollable rage and rips off all his clothes and runs into battle wearing nothing but a bear pelt, so I think I'll probably get into that racket, too."

They Entered Battle in a Psychotic Frenzy and Ripped Motherf*ckers to Shreds

Berserkers are historically described as taking part in rituals that, before battle, would induce a trancelike collective state called berserkgang

This fury, which was called berserkergang, occurred not only in the heat of battle, but also during laborious work. Men who were thus seized performed things which otherwise seemed impossible for human power. This condition is said to have begun with shivering, chattering of the teeth, and chill in the body, and then the face swelled and changed its colour. With this was connected a great hot-headedness, which at last gave over into a great rage, under which they howled as wild animals, bit the edge of their shields, and cut down everything they met without discriminating between friend or foe.

While in this frenzied state, berserkers lost all human capacity for reason or self-cognizance, and were known to scream and howl constantly, and rip enemies to shreds with their bare hands.  

Their Transformation Was So Drastic Norse Sagas Describe Berserkers as Shapeshifters

In Norse legend, to "go berserk" was to "hamask," which translates as "change form." Those who changed formed by entering berserkergang where considered "hamrammr," or "shapestrong."  

In some cases, berserkers are described as undergoing drastic physical transformation, though this is no doubt in part hyperbole. Still, in Icelandic tale Egil's Saga, it's written: "the hardest of men, with a touch of uncanny about a number of them...they were built and shaped more like trolls than human beings."

In his Ynglinga saga, Icelandic poet and historian Snorri Sturlson (how 'bout that name?) describes the berserkers thus: "His men rushed forward without armour, were as mad as dogs or wolves, bit their shields, and were strong as bears or wild oxen, and killed people at a blow, but neither fire nor iron told upon them. This was called berserkergang."

So apparently eating shields was just something berserkers did across the board. It wasn't that one dude.  

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<![CDATA[U.S. Presidents who Looked Best in Glasses]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/u-s-presidents-who-looked-best-in-glasses/roblein

Lots of U.S. presidents have worn eyeglasses. But which presidents do you picture the most in glasses? Which presidents just seem natural in glasses?

I posted a number of photos of presidents wearing glasses. There are more presidents who reportedly wore specs, including George Washington and Abraham Lincoln, but I couldn't find any paintings or photos of them in glasses.

Please make a spectacle of yourself and vote thumbs up on the presidents who looked best in glasses and thumbs down who just look awkward in eyeware.

U.S. Presidents who Looked Best in Glasses,

Bill Clinton

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Franklin D. Roosevelt

George H. W. Bush

Gerald Ford

Harry S. Truman

Lyndon B. Johnson

Ronald Reagan

Theodore Roosevelt

Woodrow Wilson

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<![CDATA[21+ Pictures of History's Worst People Having a Good Time]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/21-and-pictures-of-history_s-worst-people-having-a-good-time/beau-iverson
It would serve to reason that if you're a champion at a bad time, you'd be familiar with its polar opposite, the good time, right? As it turns out, some of the worst people in history really knew how to party. These aren't people you want to see having a good time, but like it or not, history's worst dictators and world leaders took some time to have a little fun every now and again. And sometimes, they took pictures.

From Fidel Castro getting in a round of golf before missile talks, to Kim Jong Un being a real thrill seeker on a roller coaster while his countrymen tried to find the silver lining to abject poverty, the worst people who ever lived were out having a good time before - and probably while - they went and really screwed up a ton of other people's lives.

What do dictators do for fun? Were any of the worst people who ever lived ever just regular people? If these pictures of tyrannical historical figures having fun is any indicator, there was a little spark of everyday life in some of history's worst tyrants. On overload thinking about most morally corrupt people in history eating sandwiches by the pool and having a good time? Then make sure to have a peek at this list of great people who were also perverts so you can continue your "come on, really?" overload.
21+ Pictures of History's Worst People Having a Good Time,

Kim Jong Un Rides a Roller Coaster

Joseph Stalin Making Hand Gestures

Joseph Goebbels's Wedding Day

Osama Bin Laden, Age 14 (Second from the Right)

Ferdinand Porsche Shows Hitler the Volkswagen Beetle

Vladimir Lenin With a Kitty

Hitler Says, "Stop It, You!"

Hitler Greets a Soldier

Hitler Hangs Out by the Lake

Joseph Stalin With His Daughter

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<![CDATA[Freedom Fighters of India]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/freedom-fighters-of-india/vijaymohanp

 "One individual may die for an idea; but that idea will, after his death, incarnate itself in a thousand lives. That is how the wheel of evolution moves on and the ideas and dreams of one nation are bequeathed to the next." – Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. This list of Indian freedom fighters honors the independence leaders that dedicated their lives for the cause of Indian independence. They are ranked in order of popularity by thousands of people in India and around the world.

Freedom Fighters of India,

Ashfaqulla Khan

Bhagat Singh
Date of birth: September 27, 1907
Place of birth: Lyallpur, Punjab, British India
Date of death: March 23, 1931
Place of death: Lahore, Punjab, British India
Movement: Indian Independence movement
Major organizations: Naujawan Bharat Sabha, Kirti Kissan Party and Hindustan
Socialist Republican Association
Religion: Sikhism (early life), Atheist (later life)
Influences Anarchism, Communism, Socialism
Mahatma Gandhi

Rani Lakshmibai

Subhash Chandra Bose

Tipu Sultan

Chandrashekhar Azad

Dr.Maghfoor Ahmad Ajazi
A veteran Freedom Fighter from Bihar.For details visit Wikipedia free encyclopedia

Maulana Mohammad Ali Jauhar
freedom fighter and founder of khilafat movement,b1878
Maulana Abul Kalam Azad
freedom fighter and first education minister of india.b1889

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<![CDATA[The Most Popular Democrats That Were Once Republicans]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/most-popular-democrats-that-were-once-republicans/jennifer-lee
There's no shortage of flip-flopping in politics. These popular current Democrats were at one time proud and active members of the Republican Party. Democratic politicians from all across the US, have changed their mind and flipped sides of the isle for one reason or another. This is a list of the most popular names in Democratic Party, members who were former members of the other major party in the US, the GOP.

The list includes former ultra-Liberal House of Representative Michael Forbes. Also, in this list is former & f*ture Alabama candidate for Governor and NBA Hall of Famer, Charles Barkley, who was a registered Democrat who converted over to the Republican Party in 1995 and again in 2008. We can’t forget Mr. Flip-Flop, former long-time Republican Senator Arlen Specter and who was ousted as a Democrat in 2009 and then voted out office in 2011.

This list of famous Democrats who were once Republicans might be shorter than the list of Republicans who were once Democrats but it still includes some popular names. Switching political affiliation dates back a few centuries as judges and governors looked to win influence over their representatives and senators to gain political power across the isles of Congress and in their districts. Vote for who you think is the most influential Democrat that used to be a Rep. And if you find a popular democrat who isn't featured, add him to the bottom of our list and rank ‘em up!

The Most Popular Democrats That Were Once Republicans,

Arlen Specter

Barbara Hafer

Charlie Crist

Henry A. Wallace

James E. Webb

Joan Finney

John Lindsay

Judi Dutcher

Mark DeSaulnier

Teresa Heinz Kerry

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<![CDATA[The Worst U.S. Presidents]]> http://www.ranker.com/crowdranked-list/the-10-worst-u-s-presidents
The worst U.S. presidents of all time, measured by their negative impact on the nation, its citizens health and happiness, and its future prosperity. (In some cases – such as the popular selections of Warren G. Harding and Richard Nixon – the negative view of the president and his administration is due to various scandals and perceived corruption within its ranks. Nixon, of course, remains the only president to step down from the office amidst threats of impeachment.)

Much of a president's job – including serving as the figurative head of the American state and setting the nation's general legislative and diplomatic agenda – is sort of intangible and hard to evaluate in strict "good vs. bad" terms. This makes any list of the "best" or "worst" US presidents essentially subjective, and though there were administrations with a significant series of positive or negative outcomes, it's rarely clear just how much these had to do with the person in office and how many were simply due to accidents of fate or circumstance. Nonetheless, in particularly extraordinary cases – such as the administration of Abraham Lincoln, which kept the nation intact during the Civil War crisis, or the administration of Andrew Johnson immediately after that threatened the entire success of the Reconstruction project – it is clear which presidents did an overall good or bad job.

So who were the worst presidents of all time? We're ranking them here, based on your votes! When you've had enough political negativity, be sure to check out Ranker's ultimate uplifting presidential list: The Best US Presidents.
The Worst U.S. Presidents,

Andrew Johnson

Barack Obama

Bill Clinton

George W. Bush

Herbert Hoover

James Buchanan

Jimmy Carter

Lyndon B. Johnson

Richard Nixon

Woodrow Wilson

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<![CDATA[12 Surprising Facts About Emiliano Zapata, Mexico's Reluctant Revolutionary]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/surprising-emiliano-zapata-facts/philgibbons

Chances are you've heard the name Emiliano Zapata but don't know that much about him. But the man, a staunch idealist who became a reluctant revolutionary, had a massive impact on Mexican history. He was a freedom fighter who, in no uncertain terms, changed the course of history. So maybe now you're interested in learning some badass Emiliano Zapata stories and surprising Emiliano Zapata facts? 

Admittedly, "badass" is a relative term for Zapata. He wasn't kicking down doors with a six shooter in each hand, or rolling into town pumping out rounds from his shotgun while smoking a giant Cuban cigar. Rather, Zapata was a compassionate idealist who fought for the rights of the common people. Despite his lasting national importance, Zapata saw himself as little more than a local leader. But also, come on, raising an army and taking the fight to wealthy and oppressive forces is totally badass. 

Read on to learn all about the life and exploits of this legendary Mexican revolutionary. Amidst the chaos and corruption of early 20th century Mexico, Zapata stuck to a fundamental vision and simple concepts concerning freedom and economic justice. He is a remarkable historical figure, revered Mexican symbol of national pride.   

12 Surprising Facts About Emiliano Zapata, Mexico's Reluctant Revolutionary,

Women Were Heavily Involved in Zapata's Army (Though Weren't Treated Very Well)

Known as Soldaderas and/or Adelitas, women served many functions during the Mexican Revolution, ranging from camp followers who provided companionship and domestic help to combatants (although female combatants were rare). Zapatistas were not known for their sensitivity in acquiring female followers.  If a village filled with women resisted joining the movement, they used threats and intimidation. Even soldaderas who joined with their husbands led a difficult life. It's said horses were treated better than women in Zapatista camps, because they were worth more. 

His Manifesto on Land Reform Cemented the Zapatista Revolutionary Movement

During the early years of his uprising, Zapata allied himself with Francisco Madero, an opponent of Porfirio Diaz, hoping to push for the enactment of land reform through political channels. Madero didn't follow through on promises, so Zapata broke with him, regrouped in the mountains of southern Mexico, and announced the Plan de Ayala, in 1911. The plan, basically a political platform, called for all stolen land to be returned to the people, and for one third of large haciendas to be nationalized. Those landowners who refused to comply would have all their land seized and nationalized. 

Zapata intended to impose his plan on Madero by force. However, as fate would have it, Madero was deposed and executed by another strongman, Victoriano Huerta. Huerta was so despised, he united the revolutionary armies of Mexico against him.  

Previous to the drafting of Plan de Ayala, Zapata had no written mission statement. Thus, the plan served as something of a manifesto, concretely declaring the beliefs at the heart of the Zapatista movement, which continue to affect Mexican politics and social life into the 21st century. 

Despite Revolutionary Tendencies, Zapata Wasn't a Marxist

Some associate Zapata with Marxist intellectuals and revolutionaries like Vladimir Lenin or even Che Guevara, though in reality, he was was a farmer and entrepreneur. He took up arms to right the perceived mistreatment of his neighbors and the unfair confiscation of land, not to herald the dawn of a political revolution.   

Zapata disliked the tyranny of a brutal central government that favored the wealthy over the peasantry; an anarchist, possibly, but Zapata was no Marxist. One famous attributed quote: "One of the happiest days of my life was when I made five or six hundred pesos from a crop of watermelons I raised all on my own."

Zapata was, at his heart, a socialist, who believed in fair access for all to the means of production, which he believed would lead to prosperity for the community.   

He's Responsible for One of the Most Famous and Misattributed Quotes Ever

The quote "I'd rather die on my feet, than live on my knees"  has been attributed to several high profile 20th century revolutionaries, including Ernesto "Che" Guevara and Spain's La Pasonaria (Dolores Ibarruri). Aeschylus wrote something sort of similar in Prometheus Bound ("For it would be better to die once and for all than to suffer pain for all one's life.") and French socialist François-Noël Babeuf famously said "Ne vaut-il pas mieux emporter la gloire de n'avoir pas survecu a la servitude?" (roughly: "Would it not be better to take the glory of not having survived a bondage?"), which have similar sentiments to the famous quote, despite the different wording. 

So where does this quote really come from? Look no further than Emiliano Zapata, who said "Prefiero morir de pie que vivir de rodillas," which translates quite literally to "I prefer to die on my feet than live on my knees." A nice summation on Zapata's views of his revolutionary activity, and staunch refusal to live a life of servitude to wealthy landowners. 

His Guerrilla Army Took Land Back from Wealthy Thieves and Redistributed It to the People

Land reform was the main component of Zapata's political beliefs, as exemplified by his movement's slogan, Tierra y Libertad (Land and Liberty). His followers were known as Zapatistas, peasants who were determined to redistribute land taken over by wealthy landowners who ran huge tracts known as haciendas. 

As Zapata himself famously said, "The land belongs to those who work it with their hands." These words have been evoked as recently as the 1990s by Mexican writers and radicals seeking rights for workers and indigenous people throughout the country. The fight for land ownership expanded from Zapata's village to consume all of Mexico; the cause of ownership and guerilla practice of seizing land was one of the main catalysts for the Revolution in 1910. 

He Was a Bit of Dandy, Because He Believed His Position Called for It

Zapata dressed like a traditional Mexican charro, or horseman, with tight black pants, silver buttons, a large brimmed circular sombrero, a linen shirt and jacket, a colorful scarf around his neck, polished boots and spurs, and, most importantly of all, a pistol tucked into his belt. He did so, he said, because he wanted to wear his best clothes, like the chief of any village. With a long handlebar mustache, Zapata had the appearance of the quintessential Mexican Revolutionary. 

Like Most Mexican Revolutionaries, Zapata Was a Stubborn Bastard

When Victoriano Huerta, who seized control of Mexico in a counter-revolutionary coup, was defeated and fled in June 1914, the country was in the position to create a new constitution and government. At first, Zapata, Villa, Venustiano Carranza, and others revolutionary leaders worked toegether.

However, as Carranza maneuvered his way toward the presidency, and Zapata suspected his Plan de Ayala would become a matter of little importance to the central government, things began to fall apart. Both Zapata and Villa broke away from the new government, which was supported by the United States. Zapata's rationale was his steadfast refusal to accept anything other than the complete implementation of his plan, and his belief that the new government had little concern for agrarian issues. 

Villa and Zapata were wary of one another, yet suspected they would need one another's support to stand up to Carranza. They met at the Presidential Palace in Mexico City on December 7, 1914, forming tentative agreement to unite that never amounted to anything. In the wake of the agreement, Zapata returned to Morelos, which he had been granted control of after Huerta fled, and focused on implementing land reform. Meanwhile, Villa suffered a devastating defeat at the hands of Carranza at the Battle of Celaya in April 1915, ending his aura of invincibility.

The defeat placed pressure on Zapata; with Villa neutralized, Carranza turned attention to Zapata, sending troops into Morelos, attempting to capture or kill Zapata and his rebels.

He Was Assassinated by the Federal Government, Cementing His Folkloric Outlaw Status

In 1916, Carranza sent General Pablo Garza to Morelos in an attempt to destroy the Zapatista movement. Supporters of Zapata were to be massacred or shipped out of the state to serve elsewhere as slave labor. Zapata lost control of the state, but the brutality of the occupying Federal troops allowed for a gradual counterattack and a reestablishment of the Zapatistas by the end of 1916.  

Outside Morelos, the revolution was dissipating, as many grew tired of constant violence, chaos and death. For two years, Zapata survived, fighting the Carrancistas to a stalemate. In early 1919, as a harsh winter and influenza epidemic wiped 25% of the population of Morelos, Zapata's situation grew tenuous. He began to negotiate with a potential Federal turncoat, Colonel Jesus Guajardo, in response to Guajardo's offer to defect with men and weapons.  

Zapata put Guajardo through an elaborate test to determine whether was sincere, then decided to meet him. Zapata was greeted with a hail of bullets. 

He Was a Relatively Humble Guy in a Time of Chaotic Political Hubris

From May of 1911 until May 1920, Mexico had nine presidents, most of whom served for very brief periods. Zapata's lifetime was an era rife with generals raising their own armies, military coups, fleeing dictators, foreign intervention, multiple fronts of sectarian violence, and political chaos. However, unlike most power players of the time, Zapata had no political ambitions. His army was relatively disorganized, and he saw himself as nothing more than a local village leader trying to create a dialogue that might lead to political reform. He was a reluctant national figure in an era of ridiculous political hubris. 

That said, as you'll learn as you read on, Zapata was also stubborn as a goddamn mule, and refused to budge on land reform. 

His Honest Attempts to Protect His Village's Way of Life Turned Into a Revolution

Emiliano Zapata was born August 8, 1879 in Morelos, a state just south of Mexico City in south-central Mexico. His family lived for several generations in the tiny pueblo of Anenecuilco, where they raised and trained horses. The Zapatas weren't wealthy, but neither were they peons, the indentured peasant farmers who were virtually slaves.  

Zapata's father died when Emiliano was 17, making him the breadwinner of the family. At age thirty, he was named leader of the town council of his village, and resolved to do something about his townspeople's economic oppression. When his discussions with governmental officials went nowhere, he and 80 fellow townspeople armed themselves and began to take back expropriated property, or land taken from the people.  

Under the leadership of dictator Porfirio Diaz, large landowners known as Hacendados frequently expropriated land from the peasant community, ignoring laws and property rights.  Zapata's peasant army, which grew exponentially as he continued reclaiming stolen land, was one of the many factors prompting Diaz to flee the country, setting off the Mexican Revolution.  

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<![CDATA[The Best Donald Trump Humour!]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/the-best-donald-trump-satire-/martinaustin

What's The Best Donald Trump Comedy Satire From The Web! So much out there, but what's the funnies, Cartoon or photo? Please add more, and re rank, Thanks as always.

The Best Donald Trump Humour!,

Donald Trump

Donald Trump

Donald Trump

Donald Trump

Donald Trump

Donald Trump

Donald Trump

Donald Trump

Donald Trump

Donald Trump

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<![CDATA[The Greatest U.S. Presidents of All Time]]> http://www.ranker.com/crowdranked-list/the-u-s-presidents-from-best-to-worst
The Greatest United States Presidents in history, ranked from best to worst. Who's the greatest U.S. president? Anyone can vote on or make their own version of this collaborative list of the men who shaped American policy - a fascinating insight into all the US Presidents and how their presidencies were perceived. Who were the best presidents? We expect this list of the Chief Executives to change over time as history's perceptions also change.

And be sure to check out Ranker's ultimate list of the Worst-Ever US Presidents as well, for comparison's sake.
The Greatest U.S. Presidents of All Time,

Abraham Lincoln

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Franklin D. Roosevelt

George Washington

Harry S. Truman

James Madison

John F. Kennedy

Ronald Reagan

Theodore Roosevelt

Thomas Jefferson

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<![CDATA[10 Brutal Revolutions, Rebellions, and Uprisings of the 21st Century]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/brutal-21st-century-rebellions-and-uprisings/peterdugre

The 21st Century started with a host of revolutions and popular uprisings. As the 1990s ended, so did the tenuous period of post-cold war peace (which, who are we kidding, with the Balkans conflict and Rwandan genocide, didn't even really exist).

The events of September 11, 2001 plunged the world into a state of chaotic sectarian violence and constantly shifting alliances. Meanwhile, long-simmering social, political, and cultural tension the world over exploded as social media allowed people to empower and educate themselves, giving rise to a spate of 21st century revolutions. The emergence of new hegemonies like Putin's Russia, Bush's USA, and an emboldened China only served to exacerbate problems. 

Protestors took to the streets in a series of uprisings in the Arab Spring of 2011, conflicts met with brutal violence by regimes, the after effects of which still incite violence, oppression, disappearances, and chaos in 2016. Syria exists in a state of perpetual melee, hence the rise of ISIS and countless other rebel groups, making a nation previously unknown to many Westerners short-hand for dangerous brutality. And this is but one of the most brutal 21st century rebellions. 

The globe has proven to be a volatile home for humans this century. Strap on your riot gear for a look at these rebellions and uprisings of the 21st century.

10 Brutal Revolutions, Rebellions, and Uprisings of the 21st Century,

Kyrgyz Revolution of 2010

A protest against leadership in Kyrgyzstan fomented underlying ethnic suspicions against minority Uzbeks, and led to 400,000 Uzbek people internally displaced.

In April 2010, protests turned to riots, which threatened the country's central government building, known as the White House (seriously). Police used rubber bullets and tear gas on the crowd, trucks rammed the gates of the White House, and pandemonium broke out. Dozens died, and President Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev fled the capital, Bishkek. His term in office, which began after the peaceful Tulip Revolution of 2005, disappointed reformists and was hampered by rolling blackouts and skyrocketing energy costs, leading him to seek help from China and Russia. Bakiyev ended up in exile in Belarus.

In June of that year, general unrest turned to violence against the Uzbeks ethnic minority. Many fled into neighboring Uzbekistan, while hundreds of thousands more were forced out of their homes and relocated with in Kyrgyzstan. Speaking to CNN, an Uzbek man shot during the ethnic violence said, "They shouted that Kyrgyzstan is for the Kyrgyz, and that there is no place for Uzbeks here."

Women reported to being gang raped in cafes, while their mothers watched and men laughed and filmed with their phones. Others were tortured and murdered. The violence eventually subsided, and by October 2010, the country held elections, and instituted and new parliamentary system. 

The Egyptian Revolution

Sometimes a 30-year presidency is a few decades too long, or so thought the Egyptian people when gathering in the streets of Cairo, demanding President Hosni Mubarak step down. He did so after 18 days, and was later convicted of corruption and sent to trial for murdering hundreds of protesters. The power vacuum left in his wake led to the assumption of power by the armed forces, suspension of the constitution, and dissolution of parliament, all in the spring of 2011.

The Egyptian government symbolically forfeited its ironclad grip on the people when the 31-year-old state of emergency was lifted. Still, it's hard to assign winners and losers in the outcome of the Egyptian Revolution. Hundreds of demonstrators were killed in the 18-day sit in at Tahrir Square, and more was to come.

Following the ouster of Mubarak and the military takeover, hundreds of demonstrators were captured and held at the Egyptian Museum and subjected to torture, including virginity tests for females. The Muslim Brotherhood, intent upon imposing Sharia Law (and considered a terrorist organization by some), gained the most political clout in the aftermath of the successful effort to overthrow of Mubarak's government.

FARC-EP Wages a Half-Century Old Revolution in the 21st Century

Understanding what's happening in Colombia with FARC, an agrarian, anti-imperialist Marxist-Leninist paramilitary organization that made headlines worldwide in 2016 for entering into peace negations with the country's government, requires looking at about 50 years of history. 

Colombia has been in a state of conflict since 1964.The conflict has involved radical left and right wing groups and claimed hundreds of thousands of lives. FARC, or FARC-EP (which stands for Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia - People's Army), is the largest of the left-wing groups, the longest standing guerilla organization in the conflict, and, according to BBC, one of the most well-funded guerilla armies in the world. 

Between 1970 and 2010, as FARC and the Colombian government carried the decades-old conflict into the new millennium, 27,003 people were kidnapped. Between 1985 and 2010, 11,751 people were killed in 1,982 massacres and 25,007 were vanished in forced disappearances. From 1996 to 2012, 4.7 million people were displaced

In 2008, Colombian government, in an effort to destabilize FARC, went after the group's leadership, which had fled to Ecuador. Ivan Rios, head of the Central Bloc of FARC, had a $5 million bounty on his head, enough to convince a security officer to execute him and cut off his hand as proof. The fingerprints of the hand matched. Although the Colombian government sought approval from its people to end the war against FARC with a cease fire in 2016, the vote failed, so the 50-year war wages on against the Marxist rebels. 

Tunisia's Jasmine Revolution

The first domino to topple in the Arab Spring was Tunisia, after fruit vendor Mohamed Bouaziz lit himself on fire in December 2010, sparking the Jasmine Revolution. Only 26 years old, Bouazizi set himself ablaze to protest overbearing, abusive police and poor economic conditions. The sacrifice inspired frustrated masses throughout Tunisia to rise up in a series of protests

After police killed a number of protestors, attracting international criticism, Tunisian president Zine el-Abidine Ben Ali agreed to not seek re-election, lowered food prices, and reduced Internet restrictions. But this didn't to the trick, given Ben Ali's long history of torture, forced disappearnces, and other oppressive tactics. By January 2011, Ben Ali and his family fled to Saudi Arab, his regime was toppled, and peaceful elections were held a few months later. 

Despite the success of the Tunisian revolution, and the speed with which it happened, more than 300 protestors died at the hands of the government, and as many as 700 more were injured. The people of Tunisia likely prevented dangerous chaos by setting up neighborhood watch patrols and road blocks to prevent looters and other criminals from taking advantage of the situation. 

The Nepalese Civil War

The Nepalese Civil War began at the tail end of the 20th century, and lasted until 2006. The decade-long conflict kicked off in 1996, when the Maoist United People's Front began a campaign of violence. Their methods included torture, murder, kidnapping, bombing, extortion, and intimidation, and no one was spared from the terror. The group entered negotiations with the Nepalese government in 2001, but talks fell apart, and a new wave of violence began for a new millennium. 

The war ended in 2006, with the toppling of the country's centuries-old monarchy, and the formation of a new constitutional government. The new Ministry of Peace and Reconstruction estimates 17,800 people died during the war, and 100,000 were displaced. The roots of the conflict lay in generations of extreme poverty and lack of opportunity. 

Despite the formation of a new government, myriad political tensions remain. Maoists routinely clash with other parties. A devastating earthquake in 2015 displaced millions and exacerbated political tensions, which in 2016 resulted in the Maoists pulling out of a coalition government deal. 

The Lybian Crisis

Political revolutions swept the Arab world in 2011, including a surge of popular unrest against Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi. Not one to take dissent lying down, Gaddafi promised to soak the streets in blood and “cleanse Libya house by house." His regime murdered protestors in Tripoli and Benghazi, and the UN deemed his actions a threat to human rights, sent in troops, and bombed Gadaffi's strongholds and military positions. He was diposed and killed, and the UN patted itself on the back and went home.

In the wake of the UN's departure, Libya descended into chaos. Rebel factions vied for control as a hastily erected transition government watched on. The US became involved, as did NATO, and ISIS-affiliated groups gained traction in the wake of elections in 2014, which created more problems than solutions. In 2015, one ISIS-aligned group released a video of Egyptian Christians being beheaded.

The term "The Libyan Crisis" is used to refer to two civil wars and a period of interwar violence that began in 2011. In April 2011, Al Jazeera reported the death toll of the first civil war at 10,000. Accounts of torture arose from the chaotic milieu, and, as of June 2016, 4,715 have been killed in the the second civil war. 

In December 2015, UN Humanitarian Coordinator for Libya, Ali Al-Za’tari spoke out on the humanitarian crisis in Libya created by the civil wars.

The recently launched Libya Humanitarian Response Plan identified 2.44 million people in need of protection and some form of humanitarian assistance – including 435,000 internally displaced persons – those are acute basic needs in the health, food, protection, shelter and water and sanitation sectors. Of the 2.44 million, 1.3 million Libyans are food insecure.

The Ukrainian Revolution

The tug-of-war in Ukraine between pro-Russia and pro-Europe/EUfactions came to a head in 2014, during the Ukrainian Revolution. A major facet of the revolution was Euromaidan, a series of pro-EU demonstrations in Kiev in winter 2013-14.  Organizers of the protests tendened to disappear or turn up in hospitals, concussed, with broken noses and lacerations. The protests arose from popular demands for change after from the government stalled on joining the EU, whilst tightening its relationship with Russia.

In February 2014, Ukraine's pro-Russian president, Viktor Yanukovych, ordered his police to open fire on protestors in Kiev’s Independence Square. Snipers did so from buildings surrounding the square, killing 50 people within a week. Yanukovych's killed hundreds of protesting civilians. 

Yanukovych's government also used water cannons in subzero-degree nights over to disperse protestors. The protestors fought water with fire, throwing petrol bombs at government forces. Accounts of protesters being roughed up invariably claimed the perpetrators of their beatings had Russian accents. Eventually, protesters occupied government buildings, forcing Yanukovych out. 

The protests in Kiev coincided with a period of unrest throughout Ukraine known as the Ukrainian crisis. During this period, Russia annexed Crimea, protests in Odessa resulted in a number of deaths, a series of bombs went off in the south and west of the country, and a war broke out in the Donbass region between pro-Russian and pro-EU factions, which came to involve the armies of both countries, and resulted in thousands of deaths, injuries, and disappearances. 

The Paraguayan People's Army and its Marxist Revolution

In August 2016, the Paraguayan People's Army (EPP), a Marxist guerilla organization, killed eight soldiers in an ambush in the remote village of Arroyito. The small band of rebels, thought to number between 50 and 150 members, roams impoverished northern Paraguay, committing acts of terrorism against the government and wealthy landowners.

Formally founded in 2008, the EPP has been operating in some form for more than 20 years, is known for its aptitude with explosives, and has associations with rebel guerilla groups like Colombia's FARC. EPP secures funding by kidnapping wealthy landowners and holding them for ransom. They have also kidnapped police officers and demanded the release of political prisoners, and killed some Germans in a kidnapping-gone-wrong. 

As radical Marxists, the EPP isn't opposed to killing members of the proletariat it sees as colluding with the forces of capitalism and oppression. Among the 85 acts of violence attributed to the organization is the murder of farm hands, at the scene of which were found pamphlets forbidding the cultivation of soya, corn, and other crops requiring the use of pesticides. 

The Paraguayan government permanently deployed troops to the area in which the EPP operates, it has had almost no success in apprehending the group's members. The EPP's primary aim in its campaign of terror is to prevent what it sees as the nation's oligarchy, a group of 400 wealthy families, from continuing its 60+ year exploitation of farmers and other workers. 

The Tuareg Rebellion

Nomadic Tuareg people have roamed desolate regions of the Sahara Desert for centuries, living from the land and asking for nothing from governments. Their relationship with nation-states changed in the 2000s, when Niger aggressively expanded Uranium mining operations into areas the Tuareg have called home for centuries. The mining operations cut into sacred places, which the Tuareg saw as an act of desecration. 

In 2007, Taureg rebels, organized under the banner Movement of Nigeriens for Justice (MNJ), with the aim of putting a stop to what they saw as the exploitative practices of the Niger government. MNJ captured 72 soldiers and demanded shares of profits from Uranium in exchange for their lives. Eventually, as a gesture of goodwill, MNJ released all but one of their hostages. The ony the kept was declared a prisoner of war. 

MNJ has engaged government forces in Niger, Malia, Algeria and Libya, and kidnapped a Chinese nuclear engineer and employees of the French government. In 2009, with the help of Libyan dictator Muammar Gaddafi, a ceasefire was reached between the Tuareg and Niger government. 

The Syrian Civil War

Estimates for death tolls in the Syrian Civil War as of March 2016 range from 370,000, put forth by the the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights (SoHR) to 470,000, a number suggested by Syrian Center for Policy Research. According to SoHR, a least 122,997 Syrian civilians have died in the conflict. 

The war, which is a mess of revolutionary factions and rebel militias vying to seize control from the Assad regime, began in March 2011, when protesters marched in Damascus, demanding democratic reform and the release of political prisoners. Security forces fired back with bullets, and the language of the demonstrations changed from general calls for rights and reform to a desire to topple Bashar Al-Assad, who has yet to cede power five years later.

The war has since spun out of control and into what many describe as a proxy war waged by nations and groups with interests not immediately related to the conflict between Assad and the Free Syrian Army. Islamic State fighters entered as a third player seeking control in Syria by battling both rebels and Assad. Russia is an ally of Assad, and the United States has poured money into supporting rebel groups

In 2015, Amnesty International called the situation in Syria "the worst humanitarian crisis of our time." According to the organization's report, 11.6 million Syrians were forced to flee their homes, of whom 7.6 million live, displaced, in Syria, many in refugee camps. The other 4 million have sought new homes abroad. 

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