<![CDATA[Ranker: Recent Politics & History Lists]]> http://www.ranker.com/list-of//politics--and--history http://www.ranker.com/img/skin2/logo.gif Most Viewed Lists on Ranker http://www.ranker.com/list-of//politics--and--history <![CDATA[The All-Time Worst People in History]]> http://www.ranker.com/crowdranked-list/the-all-time-worst-people-in-history
The absolute worst people in history, ranked by the wisdom of the crowd. Who are the worst people in history? This list includes mass-murdering dictators, psychopathic serial killers, sociopathic religious leaders, insane politicians, deceptive political commentators, and annoying celebrities and Hollywood douchebags who make our eyes and ears bleed. Who are the worst people of all time? This human scum has incited genocide, executed ethnic cleansing, enslaved entire races of people, practiced cannibalism, orchestrated arbitrary homicide, brainwashed people who trusted them, yelled at film crew members, and been paid by TV studios to be awful.

Anyone can vote on this list of vile villains and evil lunatics, making it an accurate, real-time ranking of the world's worst people ever. Call out history's biggest scumbags, and see how your picks stack up against everyone else's. Because those who do not rank the worst people in history are doomed to repeat it. Or something like that.
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Adolf Hitler

Heinrich Himmler

Idi Amin

Joseph Stalin

Kim Jong-il

Mao Zedong

Osama bin Laden

Pol Pot

Robert Mugabe

Saddam Hussein

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<![CDATA[The Greatest U.S. Vice Presidents of All Time]]> http://www.ranker.com/crowdranked-list/the-greatest-u-s-vice-presidents-of-all-time
The greatest United States Vice Presidents, ranked from best to worst. Vote up on the good VPs, and vote down on the bad ones. 

Don't forget to rerank this list and make your own version of the greatest U.S. Vice Presidents.

Al Gore
45th Vice President (under Bill Clinton) - 1993-2001
Calvin Coolidge

George H. W. Bush
43rd Vice President (under Ronald Reagan) - 1981-1989
Gerald Ford

Harry S. Truman
34th Vice President (under Franklin D. Roosevelt) - 1945
James Madison

John Adams
1st Vice President (under George Washington) - 1789-1797
Lyndon B. Johnson
36th Vice President (under John F. Kennedy) - 1961-1963
Theodore Roosevelt
25th Vice President (under William McKinley) - 1901
Thomas Jefferson
2nd Vice President (under John Adams), 1797-1801

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<![CDATA[The Greatest U.S. Presidents of All Time]]> http://www.ranker.com/crowdranked-list/the-u-s-presidents-from-best-to-worst
The Greatest United States Presidents in history, ranked from best to worst. Who's the greatest U.S. president? Anyone can vote on or make their own version of this collaborative list of the men who shaped American policy - a fascinating insight into all the US Presidents and how their presidencies were perceived. Who were the best presidents? We expect this list of the Chief Executives to change over time as history's perceptions also change.

And be sure to check out Ranker's ultimate list of the Worst-Ever US Presidents as well, for comparison's sake.

Abraham Lincoln

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Franklin D. Roosevelt

George Washington

Harry S. Truman

James Madison

John F. Kennedy

Ronald Reagan

Theodore Roosevelt

Thomas Jefferson

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<![CDATA[The Most Women-Friendly 2016 Candidates]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/most-women-friendly-candidates/mike-rothschild
Women voters make up over half of the electorate in the United States, and the votes of women propelled Barack Obama to the presidency in both 2008 and 2012. With the 2016 election looming, every potential candidate in both of the parties are trying to appeal to this huge and vital block of voters. Are there any women-friendly candidates out there?

Of the many people running for president in 2016, which are the most friendly to women? Is it an obvious choice, like Democrats Hillary Clinton, or Bernie Sanders? Or is it a more traditional conservative, like Marco Rubio or Ted Cruz? What about the rhetoric of people like Donald Trump or Ben Carson, candidates looked at by some to be "anti-women?" Maybe they'll turn out to be the best for women after all. From their stances on women's rights, equal pay, women's healthcare, birth control, and abortions, which of the presidential hopefuls will help out females across the country?

Vote up the candidates in either party you feel will be the best for women, and vote down the ones you think will be a disaster.


Ben Carson

Bernie Sanders

Carly Fiorina

Chris Christie

Donald Trump

Jeb Bush

John Kasich

Marco Rubio

Ted Cruz

Rand Paul

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<![CDATA[The Worst U.S. Presidents]]> http://www.ranker.com/crowdranked-list/the-10-worst-u-s-presidents
The worst U.S. presidents of all time, measured by their negative impact on the nation, its citizens health and happiness, and its future prosperity. (In some cases – such as the popular selections of Warren G. Harding and Richard Nixon – the negative view of the president and his administration is due to various scandals and perceived corruption within its ranks. Nixon, of course, remains the only president to step down from the office amidst threats of impeachment.)

Much of a president's job – including serving as the figurative head of the American state and setting the nation's general legislative and diplomatic agenda – is sort of intangible and hard to evaluate in strict "good vs. bad" terms. This makes any list of the "best" or "worst" US presidents essentially subjective, and though there were administrations with a significant series of positive or negative outcomes, it's rarely clear just how much these had to do with the person in office and how many were simply due to accidents of fate or circumstance. Nonetheless, in particularly extraordinary cases – such as the administration of Abraham Lincoln, which kept the nation intact during the Civil War crisis, or the administration of Andrew Johnson immediately after that threatened the entire success of the Reconstruction project – it is clear which presidents did an overall good or bad job.

So who were the worst presidents of all time? We're ranking them here, based on your votes! When you've had enough political negativity, be sure to check out Ranker's ultimate uplifting presidential list: The Best US Presidents.

Andrew Johnson

Barack Obama

Bill Clinton

George W. Bush

Herbert Hoover

James Buchanan

Jimmy Carter

Lyndon B. Johnson

Richard Nixon

Woodrow Wilson

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<![CDATA[The Most Influential People of All Time]]> http://www.ranker.com/crowdranked-list/the-most-influential-people-of-all-time
This is a list of the most influential people of all of human history. This means that the individuals on this list have had a significant effect on how regular people live their lives today and have had a large impact on how modern society works. The names on this list include religious figures, scientists and inventors, and some of the most important leaders in world history. Vote for your top choices and re-rank this list your way.

What makes an individual worthy of a spot on a list of the most influential people ever? Certainly, some of the greatest minds of all time deserve to be ranked highly. Examples include Leonardo da Vinci, Sir Isaac Newton, and certainly Albert Einstein. Each one of these incredible people used the power of their minds to change the world. Not surprisingly, several names on this list are also among the most famous role models we'd like to meet in person.

And modern-era figures also deserve to be listed here. Can anyone argue that Steve Jobs and Mark Zuckerberg aren't among the most influential contemporary Americans? It's time to add your opinions on who you believe are the most influential people who ever lived, with your votes and your rankings.

Albert Einstein


Charles Darwin

Galileo Galilei

Isaac Newton

Jesus Christ

Leonardo da Vinci

Mahatma Gandhi



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<![CDATA[Social Issues You Care About Most]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/social-issues-in-america-that-you-care-about-most/mike-rothschild
More than ever, Americans have their finger on the pulse of social issues - and aren't shy in talking about them. Social media especially has become a forum for expressing opinions and arguing with others about what the truly important things are, and what's just a distraction. While polling has the economy in general as the most vital social issue in America, there are a number of facets of the economy that mean different things to different people and many other social issues that have Americans paying attention.

What social issues do you care most about? Are they about you personally and things meaningful to your family - issues like unemployment and fiscal policy? Or are they issues about the state of the world in general, what we're doing to the planet, and how we treat the less-fortunate among us? The environment, climate change, scientific research, and campaign finance are all important issues for everyone - but that doesn't mean they're the most important ones to you. Some may never effect you in any way throughout your daily life.

Where do you stand on them, and how do you think the country and the world are doing in addressing them? Vote up the ones that mean the most to you, and add any you think are important that aren't on this list.

There's nothing like social policy to engender a good debate, so don't be shy in upvoting what you think is important, and downvoting what's not. Together, we can solve all our problems - or at least figure out what our problems are.



Ineffective Government
According to Gallup, Americans believed this was the most important problem in the country in 2014.

What can we do to create a working immigration system?

Moral Decline
Many conservative Americans think our morals as a country are worse than ever.

No social issue sets people on opposite sides quite like abortion.

The threat of terror is ever-present, especially in the Middle East.

Affordable Housing
Depending on where you live, you might not be able to own a home - even with a high salary.

Police Brutality
Are police taking it too far when tracking down suspects?

Campaign Finance Reform
Do you think corporations are people?

Civil Rights
Have we come far since the days of Jim Crow, or are we still stuck in the past?

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<![CDATA[The Most Mysterious Political Decoy Cases in History]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/the-most-mysterious-political-decoy-cases-in-history/switchdoctor
A political decoy is a person employed to impersonate a politician, to draw attention away from the real person or to take risks on their behalf. The political decoy is an individual who has been selected because of their strong physical resemblance to the person they are impersonating. This resemblance can be strengthened by plastic surgery. Often, such decoys are trained to speak and behave like their "target".

Some of the stories surrounding the use of dopplegangers for high profile political figures are so fantastical that they seem like they could come out of a comic book. Because some of these figures are known to have used decoys, conspiracy theories continue to swirl around them. With nothing but anecdotal evidence in some cases, one might wonder if a reasonable argument could be made that some of these historical figures weren't actually killed.

What political decoy user case is the most compelling and mysterious?


Adolf Hitler
Adolf Hitler is known to have employed at least one double and it has been alleged that he employed as many as six. One of these men, Gustav Weler, was later knowingly executed by guards as part of a disinformation strategy and his corpse was found by Allied forces who initially believed it to be Hitler. However, the British surgeon and historical writer W. Hugh Thomas reported in his 1996 book “Doppelgangers” that Gustav Weler was found alive after the war and that Allied troops interviewed Weler following Hitler’s death.

Fidel Castro
Stories have long been circulated that the Cuban dictator used dopplegangers to counter foreign assassination plots. In '634 Ways to Kill Castro', the documentary film revealed many CIA attempts to kill Cuba's leader from exploding cigars, poisoned wetsuits, femme fatales, LSD radios, and poison fountain pens.

According to Juan Reinaldo Sanchez, a former member of Castro’s elite security team, he confirms the use of decoys in a tell-all book, 'The Double Life of Fidel Castro: My 17 Years as Personal Body Guard to El Lider Maximo'. However, his stories involving the use of decoys describe times when the Cuban leader was in recovery over an illness. In 1983, Sanchez realized Castro was ill when the leader wandered into the garage “with a stain on his rear end.” It turned out to be a cancerous ulcer in his intestine. While Castro was convalescing for months, a body double was used. In 1992, Sanchez again discovered Castro was ill when he saw him in the garage with blood staining his behind. Sanchez does not know, however, what the illness was. A body double was again used.

George W. Bush
According to Joe R. Reeder, the under-secretary for the United States Army, he confirmed that George W. Bush has used a decoy.

Joseph Stalin

Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin is alleged to have had a double, identified only as "Rashid". Officials at the KGB allegedly learned that Rashid was a "double" for Stalin and employed him to replace Stalin for some public functions after World War II. Rashid spent two years studying with Alexei Dikiy, an actor who played the role of Stalin in propaganda films. Rashid claimed there were other Stalin lookalikes employed by the KGB, although he never met any. He claimed to have heard of another Stalin double who was hired to live in the dictator's dacha outside of Moscow in the late 1940s and 1950s when Stalin was dying. This double filled in for Stalin for media events and at times when Stalin had to meet government functionaries and others. Rashid died in 1991, aged 93.[12]

In 2008 another one of Stalin's doubles came forward, having written a book about his adventures as a political decoy. The Putin government gave Felix Dadaev permission to tell his story at age 88.[13] He appeared in a 2014 documentary about Stalin's last days on German television.[14]

Rudolf Hess

In 1973, British military surgeon Hugh Thomas was called upon to examine Rudolf Hess at Spandau prison, Berlin. Thomas was acquainted with Hess's medical records, which included a set of notes on a major wound Hess sustained during World War One. This was left by a rifle bullet passing through his torso, breaking two ribs, collapsing a lung and producing unavoidable entry and exit wounds on the chest and back.

Thomas did not find any such scarring on the man's body and therefore came to the belief that the man was not Hess, since (in Thomas's words) "The torso cannot lie."

Thomas also records other differences: eye colour, hair texture, bone structure, dentition, and Hess's chin, which (as can be seen from the photographs featured in this entry) appeared to lose its symmetry after his flight to Britain.

In his 1979 book The Murder of Rudolf Hess, Thomas set out a theory in which Hess had originally been impersonated by another German acting under the orders of Goering. This double had then flown to Britain in Hess's place and ended up in prison. Much of Thomas's theory is, by his own admission, tenuous or unclear. However, his original observation about the lack of a scar remains tantalising. Critics of this theory suggest that Thomas simply missed the scar when he examined Hess [9].

In 1997, it was again alleged that Hess had been replaced with a double. This time, the claimants were a military historian and a former British intelligence officer. Their claim, apparently based on contemporary documents, was that Hess had been killed after landing in Britain and 'doubled' by British intelligence. [10]

Saddam Hussein

In 2003, German television network ZDF broadcast claimed that Iraq's former president Saddam Hussein was frequently replaced with doubles for TV appearances. This analysis was based on sophisticated measuring techniques, which detected discrepancies in the position of Hussein's facial features and blemishes from appearance to appearance. It was supported by the opinion of Jerrald Post, the man who created the CIA's Psychological Profile Unit.[22] It was also alleged that Austrian politician Jörg Haider had actually met a double when he thought he was meeting Hussein.[23]

This claim is however disputed. Dr Ala Bashir, Saddam Hussein's former personal physician stated "The stories about Saddam Hussein having body doubles, to foster the impression that the Iraqi dictator was everywhere, are nonsense."[24]

Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein

Perhaps the most famous political decoy, soldier M. E. Clifton James successfully impersonated General Bernard Montgomery ("Monty") for intelligence purposes during World War II.[6]

In 1940, James acted in an Army production called When Knights Were Bold and his photograph appeared in an Army newspaper with a remark about how much he resembled General Montgomery.

As a result, he was approached by actor David Niven in May 1944. Niven, then a Colonel in the Army Kinematograph Section, told James he was wanted to impersonate "Monty", as this would allow Montgomery to be somewhere else, thus confusing the Germans.

James had to learn Montgomery's gestures, mannerisms, gait and voice and had to give up smoking.

Because James had lost his right-hand middle finger in the First World War, a realistic replacement was made.

Even his wife had to be deceived and was both kept in the dark and sent back to Leicester. Once he was trained, his trip as "Monty" was to Gibraltar and from there to Algiers. "Monty's" presence succeeded in confusing the Germans in regard to the invasion plans.

James was later the subject of a biopic called I Was Monty's Double starring James himself in (of course) the double role as Monty and himself.

The second (and less famous) "Monty's Double", Keith Deamer Banwell,[7] was serving with the land-based Long Range Desert Group.

Banwell was captured in a raid on Tobruk, but with a friend managed to steal a German vehicle and escape. During a subsequent raid on Crete he was taken prisoner at Heraklion and put under the personal supervision of former world heavyweight boxing champion Max Schmeling, who was serving in the German Army.

Banwell and a few of his comrades managed to slip away from their captors and then acquired an assault landing craft. With the help of some Cretan fishermen they made their getaway, but the craft ran out of fuel and drifted for nine days before reaching the North African coast. The privations of this voyage put Banwell in hospital for 12 weeks.

When he had recovered, someone noticed that he bore a resemblance to General Montgomery. It was decided that he participate in deception ploys, and so Banwell was sent to Cairo to meet Montgomery, given the appropriate clothing, insignia and General's badges and sent on trips around the Middle East to confuse enemy spies.

However, as he was considerably taller than Montgomery, he was told that on no account should he get out of the car. Banwell, finding the assignment boring, sought a return to the infantry.[8][9]

Lee Harvey Oswald

The impersonation of Lee Harvey Oswald has featured in various John F. Kennedy assassination conspiracy theories since Richard Popkin published the The Second Oswald in 1966.[17] The theory states that two people — one the son of Marguerite Oswald and a second who was a imposter groomed by the CIA or some other powerful and secret organization — lived as Oswald for about ten years prior to the assassination of Kennedy.[17] John Armstrong, a contractor and oilman from Tulsa, Oklahoma, has been described as "the leading proponent" of the "two Oswalds" theory.[17] According to Armstrong, some of the evidence pointing to an Oswald impersonator includes witness reports that contradict the Warren Commission's report and a 1960 memo in which J. Edgar Hoover stated "there is a possibility that an impostor is using Oswald’s birth certificate".[17] He has claimed that most of the evidence pointing to an Oswald impersonator was ignored, suppressed, or withheld by investigators and/or the FBI.[17]

Conspiracy critic Vincent Bugliosi wrote: "The way the conspiracy theorists have it figured out, if the sightings were truly of Lee Harvey Oswald, the things he was doing, or the people he was with, were of such a nature that they went in the direction of a conspiracy. And if the sightings were not of Lee Harvey Oswald, since it could be proved he was somewhere else at the time, then this means there was a Second Oswald, someone impersonating him, which again goes in the direction of a conspiracy."[18]

Pope Paul VI

It has long been claimed that Pope Paul VI was impersonated during the last years of his pontificate. Contemporary commentators pointed to what appeared to be height discrepancies during balcony appearances at St Peter's Square.

It has also been noted that after 1975, Pope Paul's facial appearance changed markedly. One photo comparison appears to show a disappearing birthmark on the Pope's left cheek [27]. Another photographic comparison shows that the Pope's alleged 'double' apparently had a narrower cranium, a fatter face, a shorter nose, larger eyes, slightly more hair and a wider jaw [28], although these photographs were taken years apart and the changes may be byproducts of the aging process. More difficult to dismiss are apparent differences in the shape of the Pope's ear and nose, also visible [29][30].

A voiceprint analysis of Paul reciting the Orbi et Urbi blessing on two different occasions has also been cited as evidence indicating impersonation [31].

Theories about why the Pope might have been impersonated range from the dramatic (imprisonment of real Pope by evil Cardinals) to the mundane (a chronic health condition preventing public appearances). Many religious fanatics have put forward claims which involve such esoteric theological concepts as the antiChrist, the Third Secret of Fatima, etc [32].

Osama bin Laden
Aside from Joe R. Reeder going on record to say that Osama bin Laden had a decoy, the implementation of this particular gambit is up for debate. In the absence of confirmed sightings of the terrorist figurehead, many sources openly speculated that videotaped messages from bin Laden were in fact recordings of a double - either as part of a "frame-up" operation, or as part of a strategy of deception on bin Laden's part.

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<![CDATA[What Conservative Tenet is Most Important in 2016?]]> http://www.ranker.com/list/conservative-tenet-2016/mike-rothschild
Conservative values will be key for Republican voters in the 2016 primary. While many candidates claim they follow conservative tenets, some are more dedicated to conservative principles than others. It's important to know which values you find to be the most important so you can recognize them in your candidate of choice. The Republican party is not a monolithic entity, nor are its voters.

For example, do you favor limited government and reduced regulation? Or do you think a massive expansion of the government is necessary to secure the border and fight terrorism? Do you think climate change is man-made, but additional laws aren't needed to fight it? Or is it all a hoax by liberal scientists? Should taxes be lowered across the board, or only for the wealthiest job creators?

Vote up the traditional conservative values you find to be the most important in the upcoming election, and vote down those aspects of conservatism that you don't feel jibe with the movement anymore.


Personal Responsibility

Individual Liberty

Free Markets

Strong National Defense

Strong Homeland Security


Enforce Current Immigration Law

The Right to Bear Arms

Private Property Rights

Opportunities Not Based on Race

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<![CDATA[The Best War Movies Ever]]> http://www.ranker.com/crowdranked-list/top-war-movies
This list ranks the best movies about war, battles, and military conflicts. These films recreate some of the most significant events in world history from a variety of perspectives and with a variety of purposes and intentions. Some top war films attempt to recreate as realistically as possible the events that they depict, either from an omniscient perspective permitted by historical study or from the point of view of the soldiers and civilians involved in the conflict itself. Ridley Scott's Black Hawk Down, for example, was both praised in its time and heavily criticized for bringing a "you are there" sense of realism - and little outside or cultural perspective - to a recreation of the Battle of Mogadishu. The best war movies of all time differ widely in their handling of the subject matter, but they all strike a chord with viewers now and in the time when they came out.

Some of the greatest war films use war as a backdrop to look at larger issues - such as man's inhumanity to man or the crippling impact of post-traumatic stress - or just as a meditation on war itself. Still other films like Glory and Band of Brothers examine the personal drama of a few individuals, and mine it for larger insights about the meaning of war and the impact that violence has on individual human lives.

Finally, some war films - particularly those made during the classic Hollywood era - are simply adventure films with war providing a compelling setting and situation. The Great Escape, for example, remains a classic not because of its grand ideas about the nature of war, but because it is a ceaselessly entertaining spectacle. No matter what type of film, there's no denying that these are certainly the best war movies ever.

Vote for your favorite war films to move them up the list. And if your favorites are not yet represented, make your own version of the list and add them!


Apocalypse Now

Band of Brothers

Black Hawk Down


Full Metal Jacket


Saving Private Ryan

Schindler's List

The Bridge on the River Kwai

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