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Levorphanol is an opioid medication used to treat moderate to severe pain. Chemically it is-3-hydroxy-N-methyl-morphinan. It is the levorotatory stereoisomer of the synthetic morphinan and a pure opioid agonist, first described in Germany in 1948 as an orally active morphine-like analgesic. It has been in clinical use in the U.S. since the 1950s. Levorphanol has opioid, NMDA antagonist and monoamine reuptake inhibitor activity; it binds strongly to the mu opioid rec...

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