Extraterrestrial influencers, royal curses, and biblical enslavements - myths about ancient Egypt abound. Centuries of inaccuracies, lost sources, and popular fictions have sometimes misrepresented and fudged facts about ancient Egypt. So, what is true and false about the long-gone world of pyramids and pharaohs?
In the many millennia between 3100 and 332 BCE, pharaohs ruled over a sophisticated civilization. This was a world of organized medical knowledge and ancient Egyptian surgery, complex religious beliefs, and even ancient sex culture and birth control. But not everyone was free or equal; the divide between rich and poor was expressed in unexpected ways. Pharaohs claimed to be gods incarnate, and they built hieroglyph-laden pyramids and giant statues to show off their authority.
Though plenty of historical and archeological evidence offer glimpses into ancient Egypt, not everything people believe about it is true. By debunking ancient Egypt myths, it's possible to get a clearer picture about the era in all its complexity.
MYTH: Ancient Egypt Was A Society Focused On The Afterlife
The Reality: Like in most societies, the ritualization of death in ancient Egypt was only one aspect of a rich and complex culture. For example, ancient Egyptians were beer lovers and women had more legal rights than their counterparts in subsequent eras. Even the ritualization of one's passing was ultimately about life: the elaborate tombs and mummies were created to help prepare and equip bodies for the everlasting afterlife.
Why The Myth: Some of the most enduring, evocative archaeological symbols of ancient Egypt are associated with grim matters: pyramids and mummies. This has contributed to the myth of the afterlife being the central focus of ancient Egyptian life.105206Does the reality surprise you?
MYTH: The Pyramids Were Built By Enslaved Laborers
The Reality: The great pyramids of Egypt required a large force of roughly 10,000 workers per structure, but the workers probably weren't slaves. Instead, pyramids were constructed thanks to a form of labor built on obligation and exchange. Scholars believe pyramid construction crews perhaps comprised workers who labored for three months at a time.
Why The Myth: The ancient Greek historian Herodotus was among the first to circulate the myth Egyptians relied on slave labor to build their elaborate pyramids. The belief stuck, and Hollywood films like The Ten Commandments brought the myth to wider audiences.173328Does the reality surprise you?
MYTH: Pharaohs Always Slayed Their Servants So They Could Serve Them In The Afterlife
The Reality: Rulers in the First Dynasty did expect some servants to follow them into the afterlife: They were sacrificed and buried in the pharaoh's tomb. One of the earliest pharaohs King Djer, for example, may have sacrificed hundreds of servants. But this process quickly fell out of practice. Later pharaohs were buried with figurines to represent their servants and undertake work in the afterlife.
Why The Myth: The myth that all pharaohs slayed and entombed their servants - or buried them alive - fixates on a limited era of Egyptian history and wrongly applies it to the entire ancient period. It also underscores the Hollywood-nurtured assumption that ancient Egyptian rulers were bloodthirsty.141288Does the reality surprise you?
MYTH: Cleopatra Was A Jezebel
The Reality: Cleopatra is known to have had only two intimate relationships in her life: One with Julius Caesar and, a few years later, another with Mark Antony. There is no evidence Cleopatra had lovers on the side while she was involved with Caesar and then Antony. Both of these relationships appear to be monogamous on her part.
Why The Myth: Ancient Roman writers gleefully dragged Cleopatra through the mud, churning out propaganda that sought to vilify the Egyptian queen. To them, she was a wanton jezebel who seduced great men like Caesar and Antony away from their Roman duty.116255Does the reality surprise you?