Sasuke Uchiha is one of the most well-known characters in anime history. He begins Naruto as the protagonist's haughty and powerful rival, and while the two hate each other at first, they ultimately come to appreciate and care for one another. Sasuke's ultimate goal is to get revenge on his older brother Itachi, who eliminated their entire clan for seemingly no reason. He's willing to do whatever it takes to get his vengeance, including allying himself with dangerous villains. When he discovers that Itachi was forced to do the deed by their city's government, his goal changes to destroying Konoha. In the end, he chooses to work to protect his home in spite of that betrayal. His story is tragic, moving....and surprisingly common in the world of anime.
That's right, there are actually a lot of anime characters like Sasuke Uchiha. In some cases, as with Kurapika from Hunter X Hunter and Yuliy Jirov from Sirius The Jaeger, their backstories and personalities are nearly identical to Sasuke's In other cases of anime characters similar to Sasuke Uchiha, such as Ash Lynx from Banana Fish and Seto Kaiba from Yu-Gi-Oh!, the connection is a little more abstract, but it's still there.
If you like Sasuke Uchiha, these characters are worth paying attention to, because chances are high that you'll like them too.
Kurapika is basically blonde Sasuke. Just as Sasuke is one of the last surviving members of the Uchiha clan, a powerful family known for their eye-based abilities, Kurapika is the last surviving member of the Kurta clan, a powerful family known for their beautiful and valuable Scarlet Eyes. Just as Sasuke wants revenge on Itachi and later Konoha as a whole for destroying his family, Kurapika's goal involves tracking down and destroying the band of thieves responsible for his family's demise, as well as getting back the stolen eyes so that he can properly put his lost family members to rest.
Some sources claim that Sasuke Uchiha's sharingan was actually based on Hiei's red eyes. Whether this is true or not, the two characters have a good deal in common. Both of them are powerful individuals who often act completely out of self-interest, but who do care about their comrades despite being reluctant to admit it. Both of them endured painful childhoods - Sasuske's being what it is, and Hiei's involved being abandoned as an infant due to being born a male fire demon in an all female ice clan.
When he eventually returns to his village, he found that his mother had taken her own life, but he also found his sister, who he would focus on protecting instead of solely dedicating himself to violence as he had before. The timing of Sasuke's violent phases is a bit different from Hiei's, but similar themes are echoed in both of their lives.
Vegeta is as well-known to the anime community as Sasuke Uchiha is, but the two have more than just visibility in common. After Vegeta's home planet was eradicated by Frieza, he was forced to assist the villain in destroying other civilizations. Through this process, he became a hardened villain who cared for little else but accumulating power. The only other thing he really cared about was defeating Goku - until he eventually reevaluated his choices and pursued a life protecting Earth from the same pain he once suffered. He also becomes a husband and father who genuinely loves his family.
Sasuke's rivalry with Naruto is comparable to Vegeta's with Goku, as is his hardened personality and desire to make others suffer. They both eventually see the error of their ways, and settle down and have families. Vegeta is a little less in touch with the emotional core of his behavior - Sasuke has always wanted revenge for the suffering he's endured, while Vegeta's admission that Frieza made him what he is is a rare moment of emotional vulnerability.
The My Hero Academia character who is most frequently compared to Sasuke is actually Katsuki Bakugo. This is largely due to his rivalry with Izuku, and while there's definitely some basis for comparison, Sasuke is actually a lot more like another character, Shoto Todoroki.
Many of Shoto's classmates see him as an elite genius who they admire but can't get close to. That's because, thanks to a painful history of abuse at the hands of his father, he finds it difficult to connect with other people. This is exactly how Sasuke's classmates see him at the beginning of Naruto. Ultimately, Shoto is a far more emotionally healthy version of Sasuke - he has a lot more emotional support to deal with his family problems than Sasuke does, and lives in a world where villains exist, but warfare isn't constant.