# January Can Be Depressing, But Blue Monday Is Nothing More Than A PR Stunt

In 2005, a psychologist named Dr. Cliff Arnall published a theory that the third Monday in January is, from a scientific perspective, the saddest day of the year; this day is known as Blue Monday. According to Arnall's analysis, people are prone to the highest bouts of depression and overall melancholy on this particular date.Â There's just one small problem: Blue Monday is made up. It was originally nothing more than a PR stunt that got picked up by the media, sprouted legs of its own, and ingrained itself as a real fact in the minds of many.

The truth about Blue Monday, however, is a much different story than the "scientific" model claims. Based on what is widely regarded as pseudoscience, the idea was originally intended as a promotional campaign to inspire people to book vacations with a travel provider. It didn't take long for more seasoned scientists and mental health professionals to scratch beneath the surface of the Blue Monday "formula" and reveal it for the fraud it is.

• ## A PR Team With No Math Or Medical Psychology Background Made Up The Formula

Sky Travel, a now-defunct travel channel owned by British Sky Broadcasting, was the mastermind behind Blue Monday. The business sent out a press release in 2005 saying they had devised an algorithm that determined the third Monday in January was the saddest day of the year. Their goal? To get the public to escape the blues by buying summer vacations through Sky Travel. It has not been scientifically proven that a vacation will suddenly stop sadness or magically cure depression.

Still, Sky Travel's plan worked. After coming up with a catchy formula, the PR team went out to several scientists, asking them to attach their names to the "study" for validity; many turned down the offer. Cliff Arnall agreed to sign off on the formula.

• ## The 'Formula' Used To Determine Blue Monday Is Hogwash

Photo: Ranker

Above is the equation devised to push the Blue Monday agenda. The variables are as follows:

W=weather, D=debt, d=monthly salary, T=time since Christmas, Q=time since failing new year's resolutions, M=low motivational levels, and Na=the feeling of the need to take action.

You don't have to be a mathematician to know that there are no quantitative or absolute numerical values for all of these variables; none of these items can be pinned down, at least not enough to assign them a fixed number. For example, the weather isn't the same on the third Monday of every January, we don't all carry the same amount of financial debt, and we all have different levels of motivation.

Guardian columnist Ben Goldacre analyzed Cliff Arnall's "formula," and what he found is revealing:

"The fact is that Cliff Arnall’s equations are stupid, and some fail even to make mathematical sense on their own terms. In fact it’s not surprising that these equations are so stupid, because they come from the PR companies almost fully-formed and ready to have [scientists’] name attached to them."

Also, Arnall changed his formula frequently, with different equations popping up in 2005, 2006, and 2009.

• ## Dr. Cliff Arnall Admitted The Formula Has No Meaning Whatsoever

Given the vociferous criticism of the pseudoscience behind Blue Monday, you'd think its creator would want to defend his work. But Dr. Cliff Arnall, the man who came up with the science of Blue Monday, has pretty much admitted that it's meaningless

"I'm pleased about the impact if it means people are talking about depression and how they feel but I'm also encouraging people to refute the whole notion of there being a most depressing day and to use the day as a springboard for the things that really matter in your life," he said.

• ## The Creator Of The Blue Monday 'Formula' Was A Part-Time Tutor, Not A University Psychologist

When Sky Travel's press release first touted Blue Monday, the man responsible was credited as a Cardiff University psychologist. Most people assumed this was a university-level professor or researcher or someone with the academic chops to carry out such a major research project. But once Blue Monday came under scrutiny, the truth was revealed. Dr. Arnall was not a Cardiff University professor. He was a part-time tutor at the school, and he had actually left his position.

• ## Other Companies Spread The Idea To Make Money

Pseudoscience often sounds good and looks impressive, with its showy calculations and claims of research and evidence. For this reason, other companies have run with the idea of Blue Monday to further their own sales goals.

According to Snopes, "In 2014, the Blue Monday story was reincarnated and harnessed by 'researchers' linked with (among other interests) an alcohol company, law firms, and a bottled water brand."

There is even a cocktail called a Blue Monday. And, of course, it's also a New Order song, but their version predates the "scientific" one.

• ## The Exact Day And Date Of Blue Monday Changes, Depending On Who Is Promoting It

At first, it was reported that Blue Monday was the third Monday in January. Obviously, the date will be different every year. But it can fall on really any Monday in January, depending on the particular sales goals of your company or the variables in that year's formula. Some sources claim it has fallen on the second Monday, the fourth Monday, and even the entire last week of the month.

The Guardian columnist Dean Burnett may have said it best: "You could pick the first Thursday in August if you like, it’s just as valid. Or the ninth Saturday in Smarch, doesn’t matter."