Few things are more satisfying than watching an arrogant character get their comeuppance - especially when they're a villain who gets exactly what they deserve. But even when it's a relatively innocuous situation, it's fun to watch cocky anime characters who got put in their place.
A more light-hearted example of this trope is Chrome from Dr. Stone, who thinks himself a master of sorcery, but who gets owned by the scientifically minded Senku, who can see through every trick. On the more dramatic side is Steely Dan of JoJo's Bizarre Adventure, a sadistic monster who begs for mercy after threatening to destroy Jotaro's brain.
Which characters are really getting their just desserts, and which ones met with too harsh a fate? You be the judge.
Motoyasu Kitamura, also known as the Spear Hero, is guilty of this on multiple accounts, and the series seems to enjoy showing him getting his butt handed to him. One particularly memorable example is when he races Naofumi for control over a small village. He's positive that he'll win, both because he generally considers himself superior to Naofumi, and because he can't imagine a Filolial defeating his dragon.
He gets what's coming to him in two ways. First off, Filo hits him in the crotch for insulting her, and second, Motoyasu loses the race - even when his comrades cheat for him. What's more, the cheating is revealed right out in the open.
Erya Uzruth isn't just arrogant, he's an astonishingly terrible person in just about every way that it's possible to be. Believing that humans are superior to all other sentient races, and believing himself to be the greatest human there is, Erya thinks he's entitled to own elf slaves and abuse women.
He's so confident in his fighting prowess that when he's supposed to face Hamsuke, he forgoes any offers of help. When he's immediately destroyed by the opponent he underestimated, his former slaves kick his corpse with contempt.
There's nothing wrong with a little confidence, but Sekke Bronzazza takes it up to eleven. This guy is so obsessed with his own magical prowess that he named his signature technique - the Bronze Creation Magic: Sekke Magnum Cannonball - after himself.
Rather than doing his research and figuring out how to counter what Asta might be bringing to the table, Sekke just brags about how great he is. Meanwhile, Asta's too busy busting through his defenses and actually defeating Sekke to care.
Rather than being straight-up annoying, Gabiru is actually kind of adorable - but he's still arrogant. As the prince of the Lizardmen, he has a right to some confidence, but Gabiru takes it much too far. He wildly overestimates his fighting capabilities, has hypemen following him everywhere, gets his butt handed to him by Rimuru in a battle he can't possibly win, and actually tries to overthrow his own father because he's tricked by Laplace into believing it's a good idea.
At the end of the series, he realizes he's been duped and that he put his kingdom in a dangerous position. His arrogance deflates, and he's willing to accept any punishment, even execution. Instead, Gabiru is excommunicated, and his hypemen follow him - they see past the bravado to the decent guy underneath.