In the 3rd century BCE, Rome introduced crucifixion as the ultimate form of capital punishment. Pirates and other criminals as well as enslaved people were typically victims of this profoundly painful, humiliating, and public form of execution.
While Western society most commonly associates crucifixion with Jesus of Nazareth, historical crucifixion did undergo a number of shifts and variations, many of which have become a longstanding source of historical debate.
The list below contains the most commonly known processes for and types of crucifixion used throughout ancient Rome.
A Special Whip Would Rip Off The Victim's Flesh Prior To Crucifixion
Two Nails Would Be Hammered Into The Victim's Feet
Nails Were Driven Directly Into The Wrists And Possibly The Ankles
Nails Might Have Been Driven Into The Ankles
The Cross Would Tear At The Victim's Already-Wounded Back
Gravity Played A Significant Role In The Victim's Death