The Black Death changed the world. As the deadliest epidemic in human history, the plague killed millions, with nearly half of Europe's population perishing from the disease. Some feared they were living through the apocalypse amidst the chaotic upheaval, while others turned to sinful pleasure during the plague to distract from the horror. And as for what happened to victims of the plague, well, it wasn't pretty.
Surviving the Black Death wasn't easy. How did someone protect themselves from the terrible disease, and who did they blame when they got sick? What happened to their body as the infection spread? The only certainty was death; after all, bubonic plague in the middle ages didn't spare anyone: monks and nuns died, alongside mothers and their children, rich men, and even royalty.
Here's how plague victims lived day to day.
Wake Up And Look Out The Window. Yep, It's Still The Black Death
You wake up on a cloudy morning in late 1348 and look out your window. Outside, you see carts hauling off the dead, and you can hear the wails of mourners. You're in the middle of the Black Death, the deadliest epidemic in human history. In Florence, one of Europe's most prosperous cities, 60% of the entire population died in a matter of months.
Spread by rats infected with fleas carrying Yersinia pestis, the bubonic version of the plague quickly jumped to humans. When an infected flea bit someone, they rapidly came down with symptoms such as swollen buboes in their lymph nodes. 80% of infected victims died within a week. But the bubonic version isn't the only deadly pestilence spreading across Europe.
Stop To Buy Flowers To Protect You From Diseases
It's the 14th century, and everyone believes that flowers protect against plague. After all, diseases spread because of foul smells, also known as miasmas, so flowers block them out. Just before the plague struck Italy, earthquakes rocked the ground, and the doctors claimed the earthquakes released pockets of "corrupted air" that caused the plague. These poisonous vapors attacked people, but many believed that flowers provided some protection from the bad air.
Since you're heading to your new job as a grave digger (a growth industry in 1348), you figure it's better to be safe. So you pick up a bouquet and hold it in front of your face as you walk to work.
Work As A Grave Digger, Trying To Avoid The Plague Victims
The Black Death created a public health crisis. With thousands of bodies piling up on the streets of European cities, authorities needed a plan to disposed of them. Florentine city leaders hired poor people to carry the bodies away. Consecrated ground was in high demand, and most grave diggers didn't bother to bury each body individually. Instead, they tossed victims into mass graves.
One Florentine chronicler wrote, "All the citizens did little else except to carry dead bodies to be buried." He added, "those who were poor who died during the night were bundled up quickly and thrown into the pit... they took some earth and shoveled it down on top of them; and later others were placed on top of them and then another layer of earth, just as one makes lasagne with layers of pasta and cheese."
Since you need the money, you spend all morning carting plague victims to the ominous mass graves. Once you dump the last of the bodies it's time to leave but, on your way home, you run into an even more terrifying sight.
A Plague Doctor Stops You On The Street And Says You Don't Look Good
Boccaccio, an eye-witness to the plague, wrote dismissively of doctors who had no clue how to cure the disease. "Against these maladies, it seemed that all the advice of physicians and all the power of medicine were profitless and unavailing." Doctors themselves died in droves from the plague, since they were frequently exposed to it while tending patients with almost nothing to protect them from the disease – other than flowers.
However, during the Black Death and later plague epidemics, doctors developed a distinctive plague outfit including an off-putting mask that covered the entire head with a long raven-like beak, which the wearer stuffed with flowers for protection. The sight of a masked plague doctor became a common, if not terrifying, encounter during times of outbreak.
On your walk home from the mass grave, you run into a plague doctor. He says you don't look too good. Suddenly you notice the sweat on your forehead and a pounding headache. Could it be the first symptoms of the plague?