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The Practice Was Mostly Applied To Women (But Some Older Men Also Participated)
It is unclear why the custom applied primarily to women. Some older men in the tribe participated in Ikipalin, but typically, it was the women who had bits of their fingers amputated. It applied mostly to older women, but the practice carried all the way down to female babies, who had the tips of their fingers bitten off by their mothers in a similar ritual.
This practice likely originated when infant mortality rates were high among the Dani due to various causes. It's possible that mothers were trying to make their babies appear different than those who had died before them, and so undertook this practice in hopes that it would help an infant survive.
They Used Blades Made Of Sharpened Stone
Beveled and sharpened stone blades provided the blunt force necessary to break the phalanx and amputate the upper section of a finger.
Prior to removing part of the finger, it was tied off at the joint to restrict circulation, thereby numbing it so removal was less painful. After removal, the open wound was cauterized to prevent bleeding and to help form a newly callused fingertip.
Some Amputations Took Place Without Actual CuttingVideo: YouTube
Those who were opposed to sharp objects could elect to remove a piece of finger without any actual cutting. Some people chewed at their knuckles to weaken them and then tied a rope around the finger to cut off circulation. Others avoided the chewing part and just tied up their joints to stop the blood flow.
In either case, the muscle and nerves died from oxygen deprivation and the deadened finger segment was more easily (and less painfully) removed.
Finger Cutting Was Believed To Appease Spirits
When a Dani member had a lot of influence and power in life, the tribe feared they would be equally strong in death. To keep restless spirits at bay and to avoid an ancestor's ill will, the Dani provided their amputated finger segments as offerings to appease the spirit of the deceased.
After they were removed, the segments were dried and burned and the ashes buried in a special place.