From the medieval era up until the mid-19th century, dueling was a fixture throughout the “civilized” world. Despite the rule of law spreading through every nation for the previous three centuries, gentlemen still felt the need to protect their honor in face-to-face duels. Of course, these were soft-handed nobles, not common ruffians, and so complex rules of dueling were put in place to insure that offenses were put to bed without the involvement of larger families or factions.
Enter the Code Duello. What is the Code Duello? It's a series of rules first crafted in Ireland in 1777 by gentlemen idiots. The goal of the code was to instill in dueling a sense of order and pragmatism, never mind that principle participants had totally thrown pragmatism to the wind when they tried to solve their problems with violence. Until dueling was finally squashed out under a pile of legislation, the rules of the Code Duello were the primary ways men used to settle beef. Each region of the world adopted their own version of the Code Duello, but they all very fairly the same.
Here, for your consideration, a modern day explanation of every rule in the Code Duello as seen through the eyes of completely made-up dispute.
One of the most common themes of the Code Duello is the opportunity to apologize. It seems the underlying goal of the code was to get these baleful dummies to shut up and apologize already. “The first offense requires the first apology, though the retort may have been more offensive than the insult,” according to the code.
Whoever was the first to throw a barb is the first to apologize. If they don't apologize they agree to duel and fight.
If the duelers are still mad, they’re allowed to argue on for a bit more to help vent some frustration. Then, Rule 2, “if the parties would rather fight on, then after two shots each (but in no case before), B may explain first, and A apologize afterward.”
Each person gets two free shots, then it’s on the second man to explain why his feelings are hurt, at which point the first can apologize and the quarrelers can hug it out.
As with any good fight, it isn’t always clear who was initially to blame. As a result, there’s Rule 3, “If a doubt exist who gave the first offense, the decision rests with the seconds; if they won't decide, or can't agree, the matter must proceed to two shots, or to a hit, if the challenger require it.”
In other words, if no one can decide who’s to blame, more violence is the answer.
If the duel comes as a result of a lie - a very serious offense - the liar can choose to apologize or shoot or both. If they apologize right away, the duel can be stopped in the aggressor's apology is accepted. If not, they can try again after two and three shots respectively if no one is hit, or never apologize and shoot until someone is hit.
"When the lie direct is the first offense, the aggressor must either beg pardon in express terms, exchange two shots previous to apology, or three shots followed by explanation, or fire on till a severe hit be received by one party or the other."