It has been referred to as the "Bonnie and Clyde Syndrome," but its medical title is hybristophilia — a paraphilia or condition in which one feels sexual arousal or has an affinity for people who do reprehensible things. These negative acts range from "small" offenses like cheating or lying to terrible crimes such as serial murder and assault. The condition is different than someone who may be physically attracted to a criminal despite their crimes; a person with hybristophilia is drawn to the person because of the crimes they committed. Those who identify as having hybristophilia often become pen pals, start fan sites, and form relationships with the accused — some have even married criminals while the inmates are still incarcerated. Famously, some serial killers have inspired fan clubs and groupies, consisting primarily of women who are drawn to their extreme bad-boy aesthetic.
What causes the sexual paraphilia known as hybristophilia, and what is it like to have it? Though the clinical research about the subject still leaves much to be uncovered, the stories about hybristophiles and those who fall in love with serial killers do reveal some of the fascinating affinities human beings can form.
Hybristophilia is in the early stages of research, and not a lot is known about the condition. Most agree hybristophilia affects heterosexual women much more than it does men, but there are cases of men identifying as hybristophiles as well. Experts acknowledge the main reason for this may well be the lack of information available to analyze: there are far fewer female serial killers than male.
For many, hybristophilia merely manifests as fantasies about getting intimate with violent criminals. However, some hybristophiles seek out relationships, often in the form of writing love letters to serial killers and mass murderers serving death sentences in prison.
It's a struggle even for experts to understand why a person would actively search for a violent partner or seek out a relationship with someone in prison, but theories do exist about the psychology behind such actions. Katherine Ramsland, a professor of forensic psychology, is one of the paraphilia's main authorities. Ramsland believes there are several different reasons why an individual would seek out a relationship with someone such as a serial killer.
Ramsland speculates one of the reasons people reach out to notorious criminals is to gain notoriety and attention from the general public, citing the fact that women with hybristophilia tend to be open about their interest, appearing on TV talk shows and obtaining book deals. Ramsland also posits many women consider their violent incarcerated partners as the perfect boyfriend: after all, you know where your partner is at all times, and there is a level of control you have over the relationship. Another reason women may be drawn to criminals is the belief they can change the person and influence them in positive ways. Many women who have married serial killers excused their spouses' actions or denied their guilt.
Not everyone who has an inmate pen pal has hybristophilia: there are killer pen pals who write to incarcerated individuals solely to collect murderabilia. Others are merely interested in true crime and want to gain tangible experience by engaging with criminals. Still, others may study criminal psychology and forensics and find it helpful in their research.
US senators attempted to pass a bill through Congress in the 1990s that would have prohibited the sale of murderabilia, arguing that the legislation would "protect the dignity of crime victims." The bill didn't go very far. However, in 2011, the US government itself auctioned "Unabomber" Ted Kaczynski's personal belongings online and donated the proceeds to the victims and victims' families.
The internet makes it easier than ever for hybristophiles and those seeking out prison pen pals to find potential suitors. Websites such as Meet A Prisoner and Write A Prisoner allow you to search ads and send messages or emails to a prisoner. Other, even more niche sites exist where you can browse prisoners of a certain background or interest group. In addition, prisons throughout the United States have started transitioning to Jpay, a program that allows friends and family the ability to send emails, videos, music and even money to those incarcerated.