When World War II began in 1939, more than 1.5 million Jewish children lived in the areas German armies occupied. When the war ended in 1945, more than 1 million of those children were dead. Concentration camps like the infamous Auschwitz forced people to endure inhumane treatment and poor living conditions. The Mauthausen camp was lesser known but equally horrific.
Built in 1938, Mauthausen was one of the first concentration camps erected and the last to be liberated. It was an incredibly volatile institution; terrible medical experiments took place there, and guards humiliated inhabitants. The Mauthausen "Stairs of Death" were especially tragic because prisoners were forced to climb to their deaths. Nazi Party members even dubbed the camp "the Bone Grinder."
Allied soldiers liberated the Austria-based camp at the end of WWII, but the terror that was daily life in Mauthausen will never be forgotten.
Prisoners Had To Climb Steep Stairs While Carrying Heavy Rocks
Mauthausen was one of the largest, most deadly concentration camps; it contained the Stairs of Death. This 186-step structure was brutal for prisoners. They had to carry stones weighing more than 100 pounds from the bottom of the quarry to the top of the stairs. Climbers often collapsed beneath the stones' weight. Exhausted prisoners slid down the steps, knocking over other prisoners while the stones crushed their limbs.
Prisoners Were Sometimes Forced To Kill One Another
Some prisoners at the Mauthausen concentration camp were forced to make terrible decisions, if they didn't die while climbing the Stairs of Death. Nazi guards lined up those who survived the trek, and then forced them to choose between either pushing a fellow prisoner off the cliff or being shot to death.
It was a psychologically torturous decision. Many prisoners opted for suicide instead and jumped off the cliff. Nazi officers called these acts "parachute jumps."
Mauthausen's Lead Doctor Kept Prisoners' Heads As Trophies
Widely considered the second-most wanted Nazi war criminal, Aribert Heim earned the moniker "Dr. Death" for performing horrific experiments on Mauthausen prisoners. In 1941, Heim started working at Mauthausen, where he disfigured people indiscriminately.
During Heim's first year of employment there, guards brought in an 18-year-old Jewish athlete with a foot infection. Heim put the teen under anesthesia, cut him open, removed his kidney, and castrated him. Finally, the doctor beheaded his patient, then boiled the skull to remove all the flesh. He kept the severed body part as a trophy.
Wet Prisoners Were Forced Outside During The Cold Winter Months
Winters in Austria are brutal - temperatures drop to around minus 10 degrees Celsius. Guards at Mauthausen used those frigid temperatures to torture and kill inmates. They took groups outside, forced them to strip naked, then sprayed them with water. Prisoners were left to freeze and many died of hypothermia.