While four US presidents have been assassinated, there have been assassination attempts or plots on almost every major holder of the White House. Barack Obama has seen over a dozen different assassination plots foiled, and he's far from the first. Most were the work of mentally ill malcontents, and came off as either incompetent or poorly planned. But a few assassination plots nearly came off, and have killed a number of people.
As befitting a president whose election was the final cause of the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln was the target of two plots before he was actually assassinated. Some would-be killers have taken aim at presidents-elect, while others have plotted against former presidents. Using guns, bombs, or knives, potential assassins have ranged from disgruntled government office seekers to deranged loners hearing voices, but all have nearly changed history with their actions.Here are some of the most brazen failed attempts to kill presidents in American history.
Andrew Jackson Takes Matters Into His Own Hands
The first known assassination attempt against a US president came on January 30, 1835. Just outside the Capitol Building, Andrew Jackson was attacked by a house painter named Richard Lawrence, who attempted to shoot Jackson with two pistols. Fortunately for the president, both misfired due to the damp air.Presidential protection wasn't quite what it is today, as Jackson himself grabbed Lawrence and beat him severely with his cane. Lawrence was found not guilty by reason of insanity, and future scholars determined it was likely the chemicals in the paint he used that drove him to the brink. He died in a mental institution.
Lincoln and the Baltimore Plot
With the nation on the verge of civil war in February 1861, president-elect Lincoln's personal bodyguard Allan Pinkerton became convinced there was a plot afoot to kill him in Baltimore, as he journeyed to his inauguration. Lincoln at first wanted to proceed as planned during the day, but would eventually pass through Baltimore in disguise during the middle of the night. Meanwhile, the Lincoln family used a dummy train to throw off what Pinkerton believed were a cadre of assassins waiting with knives to stab Lincoln as he changed trains. The existence of the plot was never proven, and Lincoln was deeply embarrassed by the affair.
An Assassin Shoots Lincoln's Hat
During the worst of the Civil War, President Lincoln took to working late into the night at the Soldiers Home, three miles from the White House. One night, while riding to the Home by himself (as was his habit), a lone rifle shot flew through his hat, sending Lincoln's horse running. Lincoln arrived at the Home unscathed and told his bodyguards, who went back out and found the hat with a bullet hole in it. The shot missed Lincoln's head by inches.
Taft Goes to Mexico, and Nearly Doesn't Return
It took until 1909 for a president to cross the border and go to Mexico. When William Howard Taft planned a summit with Mexico's President Diaz in a disputed part of Juarez, a massive security presence was requested. Eventually, thousands of US and Mexican troops, Texas Rangers, FBI agents, Secret Service agents, and private security guards all converged on the small strip of land holding the summit. The precautions paid off, as the head of the private security detail and a Texas Ranger spotted and disarmed a man carrying a palm pistol standing just feet from Taft and Diaz.