Decades before the Holocaust, Germans carried out another genocide. But unlike the Holocaust and other genocides, some of which were turned into holidays, most people have never heard of the atrocities committed by the Germans in Namibia.
The German genocide in Africa targeted two African nations, the Herero and the Namaqua, both of whom resisted German colonial rule. German colonizers used brutal tactics, including poisoning drinking water, whipping children, and performing horrific medical experiments on prisoners.
The Herero and Namaqua genocides may be two of history's lesser known genocides, but the atrocities committed by the Germans were comparable to those of the Holocaust. The Herero genocide timeline is incredibly important in understanding the Nama wars; after the Herero revolt, the Germans vowed to show no mercy, using the colonial rebellions to justify wiping out entire groups of people. And they nearly succeeded—the genocide decimated the Herero nation, leaving only 15,000 starving refugees after years of brutality.
In the 1880s, European nations descended on Africa in a scramble to carve up the continent into colonial possessions. The Race for Africa came at a high cost, especially in areas that resisted European rule. In German Southwest Africa, today known as Namibia, the Germans vowed to hold their territory by any means necessary, including exterminating entire nations of people.
After a revolt led by the Herero people, the German colonizers wiped out 80% of the Herero population, forcing thousands into concentration camps. General Von Trotha, who was sent to crush the rebellion, said, "Within the German borders every Herero, whether armed or unarmed, with or without cattle, will be shot. I shall not accept any more women or children. I shall drive them back to their people––otherwise I shall order shots to be fired at them."
The Germans committed several atrocities at the Shark Island concentration camp. The camp physician, Dr. Bofinger, decapitated 17 prisoners, including an infant. He weighed victims' brains before shipping them to the University of Berlin. He injected prisoners with arsenic and opium to see what would happen, and then performed autopsies once they died. Prisoners warned that going to Dr. Bofinger was a guarantee that you "would not come out alive."
The prisoners were raped and abused. An eyewitness saw Germans whipping a mother and her infant child. Only a small number of people survived Shark Island, and by the time they were freed, they were on the brink of starvation.
The Germans wanted to crack down on their colonial subjects. After the Herero revolt, General von Trotha ordered, "The nation of the Herero should immediately leave the country, because they are no longer considered German citizens... I am not going to show mercy to anyone."
He tainted watering holes so that the Herero who fled to the desert would die of thirst. His troops eradicated people on sight. And according to a 1918 report from an eyewitness, the German soldiers disposed of unarmed women and children.
The Germans set up a concentration camp for the Herero and Namaqua people. It was located on Shark Island, a rocky strip in the Atlantic. For two years, imprisoned people were forced to labor under bleak conditions, and over 70% of prisoners died. One missionary who entered the camp said, "A woman who was so weak from illness that she could not stand crawled to some of the other prisoners to beg for water. The overseer fired five shots at her. Two shots hit her: one in the thigh, the other smashing her forearm."
As many as 3,000 Herero skulls were shipped to Berlin so that German scientists could examine them for proof that Africans were inferior.