List of diseases that include heartburn as a symptom. Any major, well-known medical conditions associated with heartburn are included below, listed alphabetically with photos when available. Any maladies, sicknesses or illnesses with heartburn as a symptom can be seen below. For any real, further diagnosis of something you feel you might have, please consult a doctor. This list includes information about each disease, such as what risks are associated with it. List illnesses range from Peptic ulcer to Gastroesophageal reflux disease.This list answers the questions, "What risks are associated with heartburn?" and "What disease can I have if I have heartburn?"