World War II and the gruesome tactics carried out by the Nazis will forever have a grasp on the world’s consciousness - both because the brutality exhibited by those German fascists was up until then unimaginable, and because we have to remind ourselves that atrocities like the Holocaust could always happen again.
Directly after the war, Europe fell into chaos as Nazis were arrested and people from interment camps tried to flee the countries where they were massacred. In that confusion, many Nazis managed to get out of Europe through underground safety systems set up by the Catholic Church (called "ratlines"). Because of this escape system, there were a handful of Nazi war criminals who were never caught. Some of those escaped Nazis lived successful post-war lives, while others stayed on the run until the day they died.
Most students of history know about all of the Nazis in South America. While it sounds like a conspiracy theory, the truth is that many Argentinian politicians at the time were Nazi sympathizers and happy to help anyone down with the cause live their lives in relative obscurity. But not all of the Nazi war criminals who were never arrested lived south of the border. Some of them were given jobs with British and American intelligence agencies, and others simply faded into history where they became the stuff of rumor and legend.
95 year-old Jakiw Palij - the last Nazi collaborator living in the US - was deported overnight to Germany from his Jackson Heights home. @ABC has exclusive video as he was removed. @ABC7NY pic.twitter.com/BevJiMQA1Z— Candace McCowan (@CandaceMcCowan7) August 21, 2018
Jakiw Palij lived in the United States for decades after World War II. He immigrated to the US in 1949 and became a citizen eight years later. When asked what he did for a living in Europe during the war, Palij told officials he worked in a factory and on a farm.
But Palij didn't work on a farm or a factory - he was a guard at the Trawniki Labor Camp, the prison where over 6,000 Jewish inmates were shot to death in "one of the single largest massacres of the Holocaust," according to the White House press release. Palij repeatedly denied any responsibility, saying he and other Polish citizens were forced to work for the Nazis.
Palij's US citizenship was revoked back in 2003, but no European country would have him. For years after the confession, Palij existed quietly in a duplex in Jackson Heights, a neighborhood in Queens. On August 21, 2018, he was finally deported to Germany. Even though Palij was technically caught, he lived a relatively normal life up until the age of 95. Immigration authorities sent him to Düsseldorf. Officials then took him to a nursing home near Münster to live out the rest of his days.
Josef Mengele, the Nazi Angel of Death, spent most of his life committing brutal acts of violence in the name of fake science and the eradication of people he believed to be a sub-species. After the war, he fled Germany through a series of ratlines, and made his way to South America, where he became a suspiciously humble country doctor.
Mengele was almost apprehended in the '60s by the Mossad (the Israeli National Intelligence Agency), but they had to call off their hunt for Mengele in order to detain Adolf Eichmann.see more on Josef Mengele
Horst Wagner was one of the worst Nazis to walk the face of the earth - not because he was performing medical experiments, or operating a gas chamber, but because he made sure the bureaucracy that kept track of the deaths of 350,000 Jewish people ran like clockwork. After the war, Wagner escaped from a Nuremberg jail in 1948 and made his way to Rome through the Kloster Line, a ratline made up of convents and churches that housed Nazi war criminals, before fleeing to Argentina to join his pals Josef Mengele and Adolf Eichmann.
It's hard to quantify which member of the Nazi party is worse than the other, but Schäfer's life makes a very good case for considering him "the worst." At a young age he joined Hitler Youth and became a medic in the Wehrmacht during World War II. After the war, he set up the Private Social Mission, a charitable organization that served as a front for Schäfer's desire to sexually abuse children.
In 1961, he turned up in Chile, where conservative President Jorge Alessandri gave him permission to establish his own farming society, Colonia Dignidad. By the late '90s, Schäfer had a litany of child sexual abuse claims surrounding him, and he disappeared for almost a decade, until he was discovered by Argentinean authorities. In 2006, Schäfer was sentenced to 33 years in jail for sexually abusing 25 children and was ordered to pay 770 million pesos (approximately $1.5 million) to 11 minors. Schäfer was found guilty of 20 counts of dishonest abuses and five counts of child rape, all committed between 1993 and 1997. In 2010, he died of a heart attack.see more on Paul Schäfer