The American Civil War was not fought only on battlefields - Civil War spies also waged a secret war of intelligence and covert activities in North America and abroad. Espionage in the Civil War was neither formal nor centralized, and both the Union and the Confederacy relied on networks of amateur scouts, couriers, and secret agents to gather information about enemy plans and movement.
In the North, General George McClellan hired Allan Pinkerton, founder of a successful Chicago detective agency, to head the Union's secret service in 1861. But as the war progressed, different generals hired their own spymasters who developed separate networks of agents. In the South, the Secret Service Bureau focused much of its energies on obtaining intelligence in Washington, D.C.
Men, women, soldiers, freedmen, and slaves fought this secret war and risked their lives on a daily basis. Civil War spy stories are filled with colorful characters who enlisted their wit, grit, and intelligence in the war effort. Though the identities of many agents were so well guarded that they have since been lost to history, these badass Civil War spies nonetheless made their mark on the war.
This Southern "Belle" was one of the most colorful, dramatic Civil War spies. Her career for the Confederacy began with a bang: she shot a Union soldier in her home as a teenager. Dubbed the "Siren of the Shenandoah," Boyd often charmed information out of Union officers and delivered it to the likes of Stonewall Jackson and P.G.T. Beauregard. Before 1864, she would be arrested, banished, exiled in England, and, ironically, married to a Union officer. Like so many Civil War spies, in 1865 Boyd published a memoir chronicling her wartime experiences.
Born as a slave in Mississippi, John Scobell was a literate, educated freedman by the time war broke out. In late 1861, Scobell got the opportunity to put his keen mind to good use, joining Allan Pinkerton's secret service. Pinkerton was recruiting former slaves as "black dispatches" for his spy ring - he believed their knowledge of and role within Southern society would make them essential players in the secret war. Impressed with Scobell's intelligence and acting skills, Pinkerton invited him to become an agent.
Working alongside fellow Pinkerton agents Hattie Lawton and Timothy Webster in Richmond, VA, capital of the Confederacy, Scobell proved to be a valuable asset. Confederate officers often viewed him as unintelligent, and Scobell was able to take advantage of their racism and low expectations by going unnoticed and gathering information. He also worked with the "Legal League," a slave resistance group in the South.
Mary Bowser, a former slave, was perhaps Elizabeth Van Lew's best agent. Her position was risky, but vital: she was placed as a spy in the so-called White House of the Confederacy, Jefferson Davis's household in Richmond, VA. This meant that she had intimate access to all of the officials, documents, and secrets that passed through the door. Van Lew prized Bowser's intelligence - indeed, though Bowser was known to be witty and bright, she had to play the role of an unintelligent slave to avoid detection. Her position within the Davis household and contributions to the Van Lew spy ring were significant.
Harriet Tubman is best known for helping thousands of slaves escape to freedom through the Underground Railroad. Lesser known - but no less important - are her subversive, badass contributions to the Union war effort. Tubman served as a spy for the Union by crossing enemy lines to gather information about Confederate movements. More often than not, her information came from slaves. Tubman thus not only helped slaves physically escape slavery; by relying on their intelligence, she also empowered them and gave then a chance to play a role in the very war that would bring about their freedom. Tubman also served as a scout and even led Union soldiers on raids in South Carolina in 1863.