2019 The Greatest Scientific Breakthroughs of 2019  

Ranker Science
January 3, 2019 18.1k views 9 items

The world's top scientists and researchers are always pushing to discover, prove, and create innovations in the world of science and technology. Their breakthroughs alter life on earth and change our perception of reality. The greatest scientific discoveries are an inspiring testament to the profound capabilities of the human mind. Each year, scientists make incredible discoveries. What scientists learned in 2017 could help them make new advances in 2018, and scientific discoveries in 2018 can influence 2019 scientific advancements.

This list of 2019 scientific discoveries features breakthroughs and recent informative works that span a wide range of disciplines. From learning new things about the worlds beyond our planet to unlocking possibilities within our very cells, Some discoveries brought about a more rich understanding of our past, these breakthroughs will give you hope for the future even in bleak times.  

The latest in science news is inspirational for a new generation of thinkers who will continue to push the boundaries of human capability. Read on to find out the biggest discoveries of 2019 and the latest scientific advancements.

A New Australian Dinosaur Is Identified
A New Australian Dinosaur Is I... is listed (or ranked) 1 on the list The Greatest Scientific Breakthroughs of 2019
Photo:  Mokeshah/pixabay/Public Domain

In June 2019, Australian researchers published a paper in the Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology identifying the Fostoria dhimbangunmal, a new plant-eating mid-Cretaceous dinosaur from the land down under. In 1984, a man named Robert Foster alerted paleontologists about opal encrusted fossils which were later displayed at the Australian Museum in Sydney for decades before being donated to Australian Opal Centre. 

Researcher Phil Bell from the University of New England in Armidale lead the investigation into the opalized fossils in which he and his team discovered about 60 opal encrusted bones with a blue/green hue to them, belonging to a single individual adult dhimbangunmal. The adult fossil was found with three juveniles, leading paleontologists to conclude this dinosaur traveled in packs.

The creatures are said to belong to the same group of dinosaurs who evolved from the duck-billed hadrosaurs elsewhere, which, according to paleontologist Terry Gates from the Department of Biological Sciences at North Carolina State University, "fills in a glaring gap in our understanding of duck-billed dinosaur evolution in a spectacular way." 

Photos of of the colorful fossils laced with opal can be found on National Geographic.

Scientists Redefine How To Measure A Kilogram
Scientists Redefine How To Mea... is listed (or ranked) 2 on the list The Greatest Scientific Breakthroughs of 2019
Photo:  National Geographic Magazine/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

In November 2018, scientists and policy makers from 60 different nations agreed to redefine the way we measure a kilogram. The Le Grand K is a block of metal housed in Paris that has represented the weight of kilogram for over 100 years. As of Monday, May 20, 2019, otherwise known as World Metrology Day, the kilogram will be defined by the Planck constant, "a physical constant observed in the natural world," as opposed to the specific weight of a single prototype. 

Scientists have agreed to make the change because the original unit with which the kilogram was defined has lost atoms and therefore mass thanks to natural deterioration. The Le Grand K is no longer a reliable sorce of comparison. The official value of a kilogram will not change, but the Planck constant enures that the weight of it's foundation is always accurate. National Physical Laboratory fellow Ian Robinson explains the move: 

By using a universal constant of nature to define the kilogram we have enabled the whole world to contribute to the topmost level of mass measurement and, in addition, paved the way for future innovations. Much like upgrading a building's foundations, we're building a stable base for future science and industry.

Victor Vescovo Discovers Four New Species At Record Breaking Depths
Victor Vescovo Discovers Four ... is listed (or ranked) 3 on the list The Greatest Scientific Breakthroughs of 2019
Photo: @AtlanticProds/Twitter

In May 2019, an American explorer by the name Victor Vescovo broke the record for deepest dive into the ocean depths at 10,927m (35,849ft) below the surface in the Pacific Ocean's Mariana Trench. Vescovo and his team made five different dives and sent "robotic landers" to explore unaccessible areas. Upon their descent, they discovered four new species which the BBC describes as, "prawn-like crustaceans called amphipods, a creature called a spoon worm 7,000m-down, and a pink snailfish at 8,000m." 

Vescovo also found a plastic bag and candy wrappers, bringing new meaning to the human impact on environments we have yet to explore. Scientists intend to test the new species for microplastics as a result. 

Along with the Pacific Ocean's Mariana Trench, explores have traveled to the bottom of the "Puerto Rico Trench in the Atlantic Ocean (8,376m/27,480ft down), the South Sandwich Trench in the Southern Ocean (7,433m/24,388ft), and the Java Trench in Indian Ocean (7,192m/23,596ft)." Finally, there are plans to dive into the Molloy Deep in the Arctic Ocean in the fall of 2019. 

Cats Can Recognize Their Names, But Can Choose To Ignore Them
Cats Can Recognize Their Names... is listed (or ranked) 4 on the list The Greatest Scientific Breakthroughs of 2019
Photo: Dorli Photography/flickr/CC-BY-NC-ND 2.0

Following up on her 2013 study that showed cats have the ability to recognize the voices of familiar humans such as their owners, behavioral scientist Atsuko Saito published a paper in Scientific Reports on May 3, 2019, showing that domestic cats could differentiate their name from other words. Recognition of their names was indicated through moving their ears heads, or tails - or responding vocally.

Saito and the other researchers performed the study with 78 cats from multiple Japanese households and a cat café. They first had the cat owners repeatedly say four words similar to the individual cats' names to habituate the felines to the sounds. Once the cats were familiarized with the words the researchers performed four different experiments to test the reactions. The results showed that cats were not only able to discriminate between their names and similar-sounding words, but also differentiate between their names and the names of other cats - even if strangers were saying them - except for the cats from the cat café who were as equally interested in responding to other cats' names as their own.