Our planet has built some pretty cool stuff over the past 4+ billion years. The mechanisms it employs to push up and tear down itself are endlessly fascinating. Layers of sediment are laid by eruption or erosion only to be shoved, smashed, pressed, folded, uplifted and eroded again. Minerals react and interact with each other chemically and metamorphically, creating unreal shapes and amazing colors and textures. Most of the time a mountain looks like other mountains or a rock looks like any other rock, but sometimes factors conspire to create the most fantastical things... things you can't believe occurred on their own. Things that seem to flaunt physics or nature itself. This is a list of the most amazing geologic formations on earth. Vote up the ones you think are the most spectacular, the most insane... the most unreal.
- 1231 VOTES
Ausangate Rainbow Mountains
Deformation, Mineralogy and Erosion
Thanks to the intense volcanism of the region, the Ausangate Rainbow Mountains of Peru are one of the most astonishing geologic marvels on Earth. The Andes mountains are an incredibly complex chain of mountains that formed by the subduction of the Nazca plate under the South American plate. Like most subduction zones, it produced an enormous amount of volcanic activity and rare minerology. The rainbow itself is due to the environmental conditions and mineralogy. Iron oxides, goethite, oxidized limonite, iron sulphide and chlorite all paint the hillsides with brilliant colors while the twisting shapes are entirely due to the exposure of the deformation of the mountains from the uplifting. It is easily one of the wonders of the geologic world.Is this unreal?
- 2205 VOTES
Deformation and Erosion
Located in the spectacular Coyote Buttes on the border of Utah and Arizona, The Wave is a bucket list item for photographers. Believe it or not, the formation is caused almost entirely by wind. The wavy layers themselves were formed in ancient sand dunes, the different layers representing the deposition of sand grains of slightly different sizes. Their twisting orientations are representative of the direction of the prevailing winds of their time.
The Wave exposes deformed laminae within the Navajo Sandstone that was laid down during the Jurassic. Fantastically, these laminae were deformed before to the lithification of the sand to form sandstone and, judging from their physical characteristics, this deformation likely represents the trampling and churning of these sands by dinosaurs! How cool is that?Is this unreal?
- 3192 VOTES
Volcanism & Bacteria
Located in Yellowstone National Park, the Grand Prismatic Spring is another fantastical creation of volcanism - like many of the wonders in the park. It is a hot spring, formed when heated water comes up through cracks in the Earth's crust. The water cycles through rising and falling - heating and cooling - and the constant cycle creates rings of distinct temperatures. While water at the center of the spring is too hot to sustain most life at 189 degrees Fahrenheit, as it spreads out it cools and each ring of varying temperature hosts a different type of bacteria. And each type of bacteria produces a different color. The water at the center results from the inherent blue of the water (because of the scattering of blue wavelengths, the same reason the ocean appears blue) because of its depth and sterility.Is this unreal?
- 4104 VOTES
ManpupunerPhoto: Denis Veselov / Shutterstock.com
Hard to get to and remote, the Seven Strong Men can be found in the Ural Mountains of Siberia. Roughly 200 million years ago the area where the pillars are now was covered with high mountains. Because the giant rocks that remain are composed of solid sericite-quartzite schists, they were much more difficult to erode, and they now remain alone. Ranging from 100 to 137 feet tall, these pillars are considered one of the Seven Wonders of Russia and hold a place in local legend. It is said they were once an entourage of giants walking through the mountains of Siberia to destroy the Vogulsky people. However, when they saw the holy mountains of the people, the shaman of the giants dropped his drum and the whole lot of them froze in place. Because of their remote location and the fact that they are not well known, they are still unspoiled by tourism. So, unless you want to strap on a pack and hike for three day OR if you have the bucks to rent a helicopter, you will only have to experience the Strong Men through photographs.Is this unreal?