The Victorian era is remembered for its many weird and morbid traditions, including post-mortem photography. Yes, the time period that created elaborate mourning rituals also popularized after-death portraits. The medium of modern photography was invented and refined during the 19th century. People who could afford to have family portraits taken did so, but this remained an expensive endeavor, one out of reach for most people.
When a loved one died, however, families came up with the money to have funeral portraits taken. For many, this would be the only photo they would ever have to remember a loved one.
The earliest version of Victorian death photos - or post-mortem photography - was simple: the deceased person was photographed in a casket, usually in the parlor of their home before loved ones came to pay their respects.
These images were a simple way of remembering those who had passed, and served as a form of memento mori, a popular Latin phrase meaning "remember that you will die."
These photos, called "hidden mother" pictures, were taken because the mother didn't want to be seen - she simply hid behind a sheet and held the baby in her arms. In some cases, the baby photographed wasn't deceased, the mother was simply there to hold them still.
As a result, researchers often have a hard time determining which of these photos feature deceased babies.
Later in the Victorian period, photography advanced to the point where simple, Photoshop-like touches were possible. After the picture was developed, things like rosy cheeks could be painted on to make the deceased look more lifelike.
Open eyes were painted onto the photo negative to further disguise the deceased as the living.