World War II is one of the most transformational events in history. It was the largest and deadliest conflict ever. A combined 70 million people fought on both sides, and between 40 and 50 million people lost their lives. It was so big and so devastating that it fundamentally changed the way wars have been fought ever since. If we're lucky, we'll never see another conflict like it again.
To people who have never had to live through such a terrible ordeal, some facts about WWII can sound unbelievable. Some of these facts are on the macro level, like the fact that 1930s and '40s aviation was so dangerous that more American pilots perished in training than in combat. But individuals' actions can be just as shocking as any statistic, like the Japanese holdout who kept fighting decades after his country surrendered.
Here are some facts about WWII that sound made up, but aren't.
Spanish Double Agent Juan Pujol Received Medals From Both Germany And England (Despite Only Being On England’s Side)
More people need to know about Juan Pujol Garcia, a Spanish-born spy who hoodwinked Germany even though he had no formal training in espionage. Leading up to WWII, fascist Spain under the rule of Generalissimo Francisco Franco had become allies with Germany. But Pujol, a veteran of the Spanish Civil War, hated totalitarianism in all its forms and devoted himself to the Allied cause. After Germany and Great Britain went to war in 1939, Pujol approached the British and offered his services as a spy. But since he had no experience, he was turned down.
Pujol wasn't discouraged, and he decided to engage in espionage against Germany all on his own. He approached German officials in Madrid, claiming to be in command of a network of 27 spies that could obtain intelligence about the British war effort. In reality, this intelligence was deliberate misinformation embellished with information he gleaned from encyclopedias. He fed the Germans a steady diet of nonsense until 1942, when he again approached the British to offer his services. The British had discovered that a rogue double agent in the Iberian peninsula had been feeding the Germans misinformation, and realized it was Pujol. This time, they brought him into MI5. Since Pujol was such a convincing actor, MI5 nicknamed him "Garbo" after American movie star Greta Garbo.
The Germans never realized Pujol's true allegiance, and he continued to misinform them until WWII ended. In 1944, Germany even awarded him the Iron Cross for his efforts. The British also awarded him the MBE in 1944, making him the only individual to receive awards from both sides during WWII. After the conflict, word of his accomplishments eventually did get out, and Pujol moved to Venezuela. Fearing retribution from Nazi fugitives living in South America, Pujol arranged for MI5 to declare him deceased. He managed to live in secret until a British journalist tracked him down in the 1980s.
If all of that sounds like it would make for a great movie, you won't be disappointed: A biopic about Pujol is in development, starring Oscar Isaac.541100Stranger than fiction?
The Last Japanese WWII Soldier To Surrender Did So In 1974
After WWII, it's estimated that thousands of Japanese soldiers continued to fight even after their nation had already surrendered. The phenomenon of war holdouts isn't unique to the Japanese military. It's happened in numerous wars throughout history. Often, it's the result of the reality of fighting wars over large distances, since it can be difficult to get the word out that the conflict is over. But the Japanese stragglers are unique because of how long some of them held out. In some cases, Japanese soldiers waged one-man guerilla wars for decades.
Hiroo Onoda is probably the most famous of these holdouts, and his case attracted international attention when he was discovered hiding in the Philippines in the 1970s. But he wasn't the final holdout. That would be Teruo Nakamura, an indigenous Taiwanese who joined the Japanese military at the start of WWII. When it ended, he and several other soldiers from his unit dispersed into the jungle of Morotai, an island in Indonesia.
Nakamura eventually struck out on his own. He survived on fish, whatever vegetables he could cultivate, and whatever food he could forage from nearby farms. When he was finally found in December 1974, the emaciated and terrified Nakamura willingly surrendered, although he did reportedly worry that he would be executed for deserting his post.40577Stranger than fiction?
Helena Bonham Carter's Grandmother Was On An SS 'Most-Wanted' List
Practically every adult alive in Great Britain during WWII contributed to the war effort in some way, so it's not exactly surprising that many Gen-X Brits have war hero grandparents. But Helena Bonham-Carter's grandmother Violet played a prominent enough role that Hitler personally wanted her gone.
Violet Bonham-Carter was born into an influential political family in a time when women were discouraged from participating in public life. Despite this, she still became a notable political figure, serving as an informal advisor to her father, Prime Minister H.H. Asquith, and later serving in Labor Party leadership. One of her closest friends was Winston Churchill, and she later wrote his biography. She was also an outspoken liberal humanist and champion of human rights. She vehemently opposed fascism, and was severely critical of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement toward Hitler in the 1930s. In 1934, one year after Hitler took power, Bonham-Carter published a pamphlet titled "Child Victims of the New Germany: A Protest," a polemic against the Third Reich.
All of this put Bonham-Carter on Hitler's radar. The Nazis routinely took out their political opponents, both foreign and domestic. The Gestapo kept a list of "undesirable" enemies in other countries to be arrested and executed in the event of a German invasion. This was called "Hitler's Black Book," and it included Violet Bonham-Carter, as well as other influential British citizens like Churchill, actor Noel Coward, and authors H.G. Wells and Virginia Woolf.29261Stranger than fiction?
Gandhi Wrote To Hitler Calling Him ‘Dear Friend’ And Begging Him To Stop The War
It might sound inconceivable that one of the 20th century's greatest peacemakers would ever call the 20th century's most genocidal dictator a "friend," but it helps to understand the context. By the outbreak of WWII in 1939, Gandhi was 69 years old and had spent nearly his entire adult life leading non-violent resistance against colonial oppression, particularly against British colonial rule in his native India. Since Germany and the United Kingdom were adversaries in both world wars, it might seem like India and Germany would have been natural allies, even though Hitler and Gandhi obviously had very different personal beliefs. But Gandhi's goal was never to destroy the United Kingdom to gain Indian independence; it was to change the hearts and minds of the British people. Gandhi was committed to non-violence, which meant opposing oppression from both the British Empire as well as the Third Reich. But rather than fight back against either adversary, Gandhi believed he could appeal to everyone's common humanity.
Gandhi actually made multiple entreaties to the leaders of the Axis powers, both in the run-up to the conflict and after it had begun. In 1931, on a trip to London for political negotiations, Gandhi stopped in Rome and met with Mussolini to encourage him not to pursue war. In the summer of 1939, only months before WWII began, Gandhi wrote to Hitler directly and advised him that he was the one person capable of stopping the violence. Hitler ignored Gandhi's advice, going on to annex Czechoslovakia and invade Poland and Denmark. Undeterred, Gandhi wrote to the Fuhrer again in 1940, begging him to back down.
It should be noted Gandhi didn't call Hitler 'dear friend' because he thought the Fuhrer was a swell guy. He explained his salutation in the letter itself:
That I address you as a friend is no formality. I own no foes. My business in life has been for the past 33 years to enlist the friendship of the whole of humanity by befriending mankind, irrespective of race, colour or creed.
It's doubtful Gandhi ever believed Hitler would take his requests seriously. But he still felt he had to try.28187Stranger than fiction?