In the sixteenth century, everyone told stories about Renaissance sea monsters, the terrifying creatures that attacked sailors. In 1539, a Swede named Olaus Magnus tried to explain the mysterious creatures of the North Sea to a group of Italians in a detailed map called the Carta Marina. Magnus filled the water with strange and imaginative creatures people believed in during the Renaissance.
From the sea pig to the enormous sea serpent, Magnus’s sea monsters were terrifying to sailors. On the map, they smash ships and crush sailors. But some of Magnus’s sea monsters, like the “sea rhinoceros,” definitely qualify among the most inaccurate historical drawings of animals. And other sea monsters were clearly made up sea creatures people really believed in, like the sea cow, which looks more like a drowning ox.
Sea monsters can be horrifying, but they can also seem pretty silly, like the sailors who mistook a whale for an island and lit a fire on his back. Here are the most terrifying, strangest sea creatures that Olaus Magnus promised lived in the ocean.
The Sea Pig, The Ocean’s Answer To Pork
In the sixteenth century, it was common to believe that every animal on earth had a counterpart in the sea. That’s how the sea lion got its name, after all. Here is Olaus Magnus’s version of the pig, which he creatively calls the sea pig, or sea swine. The biggest difference between land pigs and the horrifying sea pig? Sea pigs have a lot more eyes. In addition to the usual pair on his face, sea pigs have “two eyes on both sides of his loins and a third in his belly inkling toward his naval.”
The Prister, An Enormous, Angry Whale With Two Blowholes
The Prister was a kind of whale, according to Olaus Magnus, and it was also known as a Whirlpool. That’s because the Prister could sink a ship simply by emerging from the water. The Prister’s favorite hobby is rearing out of the water so he can smash ships with his body, drowning everyone on board. Pristers are at least 300 feet long, and the blasts of water from its two blowholes can sink ships. Magnus described the Prister as “very cruel” and very angry.
Sea Rhinoceros Versus Lobster: Battle To The Death
It looks like something out of a monster movie––two sea creatures battling it out in the water. On one side, Olaus Magnus puts the sea rhinoceros, and on the other, a giant lobster. Magnus simply describes the sea rhinoceros as a “monster looking like a rhinoceros,” which he claims has horns and a speckled body. The sea rhinoceros was not based on eyewitness reports like some of the other sea monsters Magnus shows. Instead, Magnus bases his description on his imagination of what a rhinoceros would look like if it lived in the sea.
The Rockas, The Only Nice Sea Monster In The Entire Ocean
Sailors must have been terrified by the images on Olaus Magnus’s map. Enormous sea serpents waiting to crush ships, Pristers ready to leap from the sea, and five-eyed sea pigs oinking through the water all appear on Magnus’s map. But Magnus thankfully included one friendly sea monster: the rockas, a benevolent ray. According to Magnus, “they protect the swimming man and save him from being devoured by the sea monsters.” In this image, a gang of fish nibble on a swimmer's tender parts while he waits to be saved by the rockas.