The September 11 attacks on the World Trade Center and Pentagon left America reeling, its citizens searching for answers. The lengths to which authorities went for retribution in the wake of the national tragedy didn't matter to many Americans, who felt no cost was too high to bring the attackers, and any like them, to justice, even if it meant overstepping legal and moral bounds. Enter Guantanamo Bay detention camp (GTMO).
The Joint Task Force's hastily erected prison at the Naval Base in Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, became a living symbol for America's War on Terror. Hundreds of suspects - guilty and not guilty alike - were rounded up, sent to this new prison operating in a legal gray area, and interrogated using methods both sanctioned and not.
The GTMO stories that emerged during the Bush presidency are harrowing. The United Nations, International Red Cross, and numerous news outlets, including New York Times and BBC, have condemned the tactics used on GTMO prisoners as torture. Some pundits have even called for George W. Bush, Dick Cheney, and Donald Rumsfeld to face trial as war criminals.
Since before he took office, Barak Obama called for closing Guantanamo Bay. During his time in office he has made numerous attempts to shutter the prison once and for all, but as of this writing, the prison remains open. Read on to learn all about the harrowing history of GTMO prison.
Guantanamo Bay, also known as GTMO (colloquially, Gitmo), is the home of the Navy's oldest overseas installation. The base is located about 400 miles from Miami, in the southeastern corner of Cuba. It's 45 square miles of land and water (mostly water) leased from the Cuban government, and houses just over 6000 military personnel. The 17-mile-long fence forming the border of the base is separated from the rest of Cuba by a Cactus Curtain, a thick ring of military-planted cacti and land mines.
Inside the fence is a highly fortified network of roads, buildings, trailers, airstrips, and, of course, Camp Justice and the sprawling Expeditionary Legal Complex (ELC) - the notorious military prison that was opened in 2002. The base also houses tidy, suburban-style subdivisions, a school, a church, three Subways, a Walmart-style supermarket, an open-air movie theater, and a gym.
In their off-hours, Guantanamo's military personnel can go snorkeling and scuba diving, or head to a souvenir shop to load up on iguana plush toys, Gitmo-themed shot glasses, or tank tops with slogans like, "It don't GTMO better than this!"
As of November 2016, GTMO hosts 60 detainees (as they're called in official parlance). Since President Bush started the prison in 2002, it has housed about 780 detainees from at least 21 different countries, and of 50 nationalities. The prison population was down to 242 by the start of Obama's presidency, and he has shrunk that number to 25% its size over the course of his two terms. Only eight detainees of GTMO have been convicted of crimes.
Guantanamo's detainees are housed in one of seven camps, numbered 1 through 7. The camps are numbered in the order in which they were built; it is not a tiered security system. All camps but Camp 4 are maximum security. In Camp 4, prisoners can socialize in commons areas and eat together. In all other camps, they're held in solitary.
Camp 5 and Camp 6 contain most of GTMO's prisoners as of 2016, and are solid structures assembled of concert and steel, which makes them different from Camps 1 through 4, which were hastily erected of wood, plastic, and fence. Camp 5 is home to a supermax panopticon.
Camp 7 is so secret its location is classified and the government denied its existence for almost a decade after it was opened in 2006. It houses only a few prisoners of the highest value to the government, kept under the severest degree of security (9/11 mastermind Khalid Sheik Mohammed allegedly lives here). It's the only prison the US system that doesn't allow prisoners to earn better conditions through good behavior. One prisoner testified that cells in Camp 7 are constantly filled with noise, making it impossible to do anything, even read or sleep.
Most of the cells are 9' x 10' concrete boxes with a bed, sink, and toilet. Detainees in Camp 6 have no access to natural light, while those in Camp 5 have frosted windows with limited access to outside light. According to the Center for Constitutional Rights, depriving detainees of access to natural light is a violation of UN Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners and American Correctional Association standards
The prisons are filled with places to connect shackles, from inside the cells to the classrooms and even the recreation and television areas.
According to an article published in the Los Angeles Times, GTMO detainees are awoken by guards at 5:00 am every day. The single bed sheet they're allotted is taken away at that time; they're not allowed more bedding due to the potential suicide risk it poses.
Food comes in Styrofoam containers through a slot in the cell door called the "bean hole." Each prisoner gets as many as 4,000 calories a day, and meals can be prepared vegetarian, halal, or in accordance with whatever nutritional requirements a prisoner may have. Prisoners held in Camp 4 eat communally, not alone in their cells.
Most detainees are shackled any time they leave their cell, whether being transferred to a different part of the prison or sitting in the common area. The only time they're unshackled is inside their cells or during recreational time, of which they get two hours a day. Those prisoners kept in solitary confinement exercise alone. Lights are kept on 24 hours for security reasons, and prisoners are issued sleep masks for cover (though the original inmates of the prison didn't have this luxury).
Toilet paper is rationed, and only handed out upon request. Other comfort items granted to those compliant with camp regulations include prayer beads, a pen and paper, a change of clothes, and a mattress for their bed.