If you've heard of Pazuzu at all, it's because you paid attention while watching The Exorcist. Pazuzu was the demon that possessed young Regan in the film. However, this fascinating character has a long history that goes back several centuries, far before he ever appeared in a movie. Regardless of whether or not you think that demons are actually real, belief in Pazuzu has definitely influenced the actions of countless people.
In conflict with the film's representation, some historians have pointed out that Pazuzu is a bit of a conundrum as he doesn't easily fit into the modern day interpretation of a demon. Turns out the Hollywood-ized version of the demon seen on the big screen isn't truly indicative of the traits that people living in pre-biblical times attributed to Pazuzu. Luckily for those of us looking for more info on the "real" hellion who inspired the demon in The Exorcist, the facts on Pazuzu are actually much more interesting than the stereotype. Here's everything you never knew about your new favorite fiend.
This demonic god enjoyed the height of his popularity from 2,000 BCE to 1,000 BCE. Babylonian and Assyrian people alternated between fearing Pazuzu and turning to him for help. This could be because Pazuzu held a high position in the underworld. His father, Hanbi, ruled the underworld as the king of demons.
His brother, Humbaba, had an important role in The Epic of Gilgamesh as a demon-god. Because the heroes of The Epic of Gilgamesh killed Humbaba, Pazuzu was only one step away from ascending to the underworld's throne.
Demons were often believed to have a multifaceted personalities. For example, no historian would argue that Pazuzu wasn't seen as a malevolent spirit, but at the same time people would invoke Pazuzu for assistance during pregnancy. According to ancient Mesopotamian beliefs, the demon-goddess Lamashtu was especially dangerous to pregnant women and newborn babies.
Pazuzu, on the other hand, was a countering force that could keep Lamashtu at bay. As a result, women often asked for Pazuzu's assistance, even though they also believed he was evil.
The Bible contains numerous beasts that are hybrids of various creatures. It's possible that the inspiration for this came from earlier gods and demons such as Pazuzu. This particular demon-god is often depicted as being partially human. The rest of his frame, though, is fleshed out with a scorpion's tail, eagle talons, two sets of wings, and a fierce lion's head.
With an appearance like that, it's no wonder ancient people alternated between fearing and invoking the name of Pazuzu.
When your father rules the underworld, you're going to end up with some fearsome and awesome powers of your own. Pazuzu commanded the southwest and west winds that blew through Babylon and Assyria. The importance of this cannot possibly be overstated as these winds had the power to cause famine, locusts, and destructive storms.
Unsurprisingly, people decided that they should appeal to Pazuzu to control these winds in their favor instead of against them. It does makes sense that Mesopotamian people would assume that the demon capable of sending winds to destroy their land may keep those winds in check if given the proper level of prayers and worship.