Chances are that when you think of the Ice Age, your mind conjures up images of vast, snow-covered wastelands traversed by cavemen and wooly-mammoths. But, between the 13th and 19th centuries, the Little Ice Age and the General Crisis that subsequently ensued had an arguably far more profound effect on the development of human civilization. The loss of crops, livestock, and human life that resulted from the Little Ice Age are incalculable, but the devastation caused humanity to embrace new ways of life, new foods, and even saw the downfall of several governments. Nothing could have prepared Europe for the icy crucible it was to endure, but by the time it emerged, it was a completely different land.
The effects of this massive climate change event weren’t only relegated to Europe. The United States, especially New England, saw a great deal of adverse effects from the cold. Snow-covered summers and population migrations became part of American life for a time. In addition, China saw its own revolution inspired by the adverse effects of a colder world. From canals in the Netherlands to red snow in Italy, the Little Ice Age was hardly little in its global effects.
It All Started With Volcanic Eruptions
Research suggests that this ice-age-inducing period of cooling was actually catalyzed by volcanic eruptions in tropical zones. During the eruptions, tiny particles called "aerosols" were spewed up into the atmosphere. Once they made it up that far, they just sort of hung there, reflecting solar radiation away from the surface of the Earth, which blocked the sun's rays from making it down to the surface. Because of this lack of solar warmth, the Earth cooled for a period of time. This caused new ice to form in the North Atlantic, which then also reflected the sun’s rays back into space along with keeping the surrounding water cold. This condition, known as the albedo effect, became self-perpetuating for some time; the combination of aerosols and increased ice led to the formation of even more ice, which led to the refraction of even more sunlight. This led to hundreds of years of a much colder climate.
It Mostly Affected Europe
While the entire planet became cooler between the 14th and 19th centuries, it was Europe that got hit the hardest, with London's River Thames and canals in the Netherlands (both usable waterways) completely frozen for centuries. At first, the Ice Age manifested as difficult and constantly changing weather, but when the temperature really plummeted, it led to droughts and famines across the continent. When resources became scarce and trade wasn’t enough to disseminate goods to those who needed them, wars broke out. Because Europe had so many factions within it, that meant a lot of battles.
It Caused The Great Famine Of 1315, Which Established A Period Of Conflict
One of the first - and most destructive - symptoms of the Little Ice Age was the Great European Famine of 1315 to 1317. After terrible weather in 1315, crops died throughout Europe for the next two years. During those years, less food led to massive crime, horrible disease, and even cannibalism. Families were even forced to kill their own newborn children as they could not afford another mouth to feed. Even among the richest and best cared for in Europe, the life expectancy dropped by about 5 years.
The Little Ice Age Allowed The Black Death To Happen
With disruptive weather and bone-chilling cold, it’s no wonder disease could spread easily throughout Europe. A recent study linked the Little Ice Age and the subsequent agricultural crisis it initiated to the spread of the Bubonic Plague. People’s immune systems were severely compromised, and dead bodies were common due to exposure and starvation. This created the perfect cocktail for bacterium to make its move. By the end of the epidemic five years later, more than 20 million people in Europe had died.